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Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Liliaceae


1 sp. (Greek: crooked foot, from curving pedicel)

S. bigelovii Torr.
Rhizome short, slender. Stem: short, underground. Leaf: 2(3) basal, sheathing, 5–20 cm, 5–10 cm wide, elliptic to oblong, many-veined, mottled. Inflorescence: umbel, subsessile; peduncle underground; pedicels 1–12, 8–20 cm, appearing scapose, 3-angled, twisting and recurving so fruit touches soil. Flower: ill-scented when fresh, ± green or ± yellow, mottled, heavily lined purple or dark brown; perianth parts 6 in 2 very different whorls; sepals 14–17 mm, narrowly ovate, spreading, deeply concave near base; petals ± = sepals, linear, erect or arching over ovary; stamens 3, 5–6 mm, attached to sepals; ovary 3-angled, chamber 1, style branches 3, 5–6 mm, linear, ± recurved or spreading. Fruit: capsule-like, 15–18 mm, elliptic, thin-walled, irregularly dehiscent or indehiscent. Seed: ± 3 mm, oblong, with food body.
n=7,8. Moist, shady redwood forest; < 1100 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area. Feb–Mar [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Scoliopus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015

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click for enlargement Scoliopus bigelovii
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Jo-Ann Ordano 2005 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Scoliopus bigelovii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.