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Perennial herb from membranous bulb or scaly rhizome. Stem: underground or erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate, subopposite, or whorled. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, ± umbel-like or not. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 generally petal-like whorls, often showy; stamens 3 or 6, filaments free or ± fused to perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or ± so, style 1, entire or 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule or berry. Seed: 3–many, flat or angled, brown to black.
16 genera, 635 species: northern temperate. Users strongly encouraged to protect plants by working around need to see underground parts in using keys, e.g., by trying both leads in couplets solely dependent on such characters. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. an historical waif in California. Other TJM (1993) taxa moved to Agavaceae (Agave, Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hastingsia, Hesperocallis, Hesperoyucca, Leucocrinum, Yucca), Alliaceae (Allium, Ipheion, Nothoscordum), Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis, Narcissus, Pancratium), Asparagaceae (Asparagus), Asphodelaceae (Aloe, Asphodelus, Kniphofia), Melanthiaceae (Pseudotrillium, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, Trillium, Veratrum, Xerophyllum), Nartheciaceae (Narthecium), Ruscaceae (Maianthemum, Nolina), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Tecophilaeaceae (Odontostomum), Themidaceae (Androstephium, Bloomeria, Brodiaea, Dichelostemma, Muilla, Triteleia), and Tofieldiaceae (Triantha). North American species of Disporum now in Prosartes. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Liliaceae
1 sp. (Greek: crooked foot, from curving pedicel)
Rhizome short, slender. Stem: short, underground. Leaf: 2(3) basal, sheathing, 5–20 cm, 5–10 cm wide, elliptic to oblong, many-veined, mottled. Inflorescence: umbel, subsessile; peduncle underground; pedicels 1–12, 8–20 cm, appearing scapose, 3-angled, twisting and recurving so fruit touches soil. Flower: ill-scented when fresh, ± green or ± yellow, mottled, heavily lined purple or dark brown; perianth parts 6 in 2 very different whorls; sepals 14–17 mm, narrowly ovate, spreading, deeply concave near base; petals ± = sepals, linear, erect or arching over ovary; stamens 3, 5–6 mm, attached to sepals; ovary 3-angled, chamber 1, style branches 3, 5–6 mm, linear, ± recurved or spreading. Fruit: capsule-like, 15–18 mm, elliptic, thin-walled, irregularly dehiscent or indehiscent. Seed: ± 3 mm, oblong, with food body.
n=7,8. Moist, shady redwood forest; < 1100 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area. Feb–Mar [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Scoliopus
Next taxon: Streptopus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Scoliopus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43824, accessed on Jul 22 2014
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Jo-Ann Ordano © 2005 California Academy of Sciences
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