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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]
Key to Cyperaceae
Generally perennial herb, generally erect, generally with long, scaly rhizomes; stem, leaf generally with air cavities. Stem: simple, smooth, (wiry). Leaf: generally all basal, whorled or 3-ranked; blade generally present, at least on distal sheath, smooth, or margin minute-scabrous; sheath closed, long; ligule glabrous. Inflorescence: terminal, branch stems often scabrous, main inflorescence bract like leaf blade; spikelets ovate, not ± flat, many-flowered; flower bracts spiraled, each with 1 flower in axil, ovate, 1-veined, brown to straw, dull, often fine-lined-spotted, membranous, generally ± scabrous, tip generally notched, generally with short awn. Flower: bisexual; perianth bristles ± straight, ± <= fruit, generally brown, reflexed-barbed (or with soft hairs) [(smooth)]; stamens generally 3; style 1, thread-like, base not enlarged, stigmas 2–3. Fruit: generally obovate, brown, generally smooth, mucronate; tubercle 0.Key to Schoenoplectus
Wetlands, often emergent (or submersed).
± 77 species: temperate, subtropics, worldwide. (Greek: rush woven, from use of stems in baskets, etc.) [Smith 2002 FNANM 23:44–60]
Unabridged etymology: (Greek, schoenos, a rush, reed, and plectos, plaited, twisted, woven, in reference to the use of stems in making useful objects)
Perennial herb 0.5–1.5 m; rhizome long, 2–10 mm diam. Stem: 2–4 mm diam, sharp-3-sided. Leaf: sheath fibers 0; blades 1–2, <= sheath, flat or V-shaped in ×-section. Inflorescence: panicle-, often head-like, inflorescence bract generally erect, 2–7 cm; spikelets 1–35, in clusters of 1–few, 5–12 mm, 2–4 mm wide; flower bract 3–3.5 mm, midrib, awn distally scabrous, tip notch 0.3 mm, awn to ± 0.3 mm. Flower: perianth bristles 4–6, <= fruit, barbed; stigmas 2. Fruit: 2–2.5 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide, 2-sided, smooth.
2n=68. Fresh water marshes, shores; ± 50 m. Sacramento Valley; to Washington; Eurasia. [Scirpus triqueter L.] Inclusion of Schoenoplectus triqueter based on 1 California collection: Sutter National Wildlife Refuge, 1954, D.B. Marshall s.n. (UC, CAS/DS, DAV); site since extensively bulldozed and otherwise changed by management. Before Smith was aware of presence in North America of naturalized Schoenoplectus triqueter, he identified the DAV specimen as possibly Schoenoplectus americanus × acutus or Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani × Schoenoplectus californicus, but in 2002 he identified the CAS/DS duplicate as Schoenoplectus triqueter, and in 2005 and 2006 he re-identified the DAV and UC duplicates as Schoenoplectus triqueter. Summer [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani
Next taxon: Schoenus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Schoenoplectus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43578, accessed on Jul 31 2014
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