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SAXIFRAGACEAE SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Michael S. Park & Patrick E. Elvander, except as noted

Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy. Stem: often ± leafy on proximal 1/2, rarely trailing and leafy throughout. Leaf: generally simple, basal and/or cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, generally ± scapose. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens 3, [4], 5, 8, or 10; pistils 1 (carpels ± fused, ovary lobed, chambers 1 or 2, placentas generally 2(3), axile or parietal or occasionally proximally axile and distally marginal in ovary lobes) or 2 (carpels free, placentas marginal), ovary nearly superior to inferior, occasionally more superior in fruit, styles generally 2(3). Fruit: capsule (generally 2(3)-beaked, valves generally 2(3), generally equal) or 2 follicles. Seed: generally many, small.
± 30 genera, 600 species: especially northern temperate, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia, Darmera, Heuchera, Saxifraga, Tellima, Tolmiea). [Soltis et al. 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:669–693; Okuyama et al. 2008 Molec Phylogen Evol 46:560–575] California Mitella moved to Mitellastra, Ozomelis, Pectiantia; Suksdorfia ranunculifolia to Hemieva. Parnassia moved to Parnassiaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

Key to Saxifragaceae

SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGE

Michael S. Park

Plant generally ± hairy, often glandular; caudex or rhizome generally not woody, generally scaly. Leaf: blade obovate to round, base tapered to reniform or cordate, margin lobed. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flowers 1–many; bracts scale-like. Flower: hypanthium free or ± fused to ovary; [petals sometimes spotted]; stamens 10, filaments generally flat; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior (sometimes more superior in fruit), chambers 2, placentas 2, axile, styles 2, free throughout. Fruit: capsule.
± 300 species: cool northern temperate, boreal, arctic. (Latin: rock-breaking) Saxifraga stolonifera W. Curtis cultivated only. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Cascadia, Micranthes.

Key to Saxifraga

S. mertensiana Bong.
NATIVE
Caudex with bulblets. Leaf: 4–20 cm; petiole 2–15 cm; blade generally > 15 mm, ± round, divided < 1/4 to base, base generally cordate; lobes many, triangular to semicircular, each generally with ± 2–5 irregular teeth. Inflorescence: panicle, 15–30 cm, open. Flower: sepals reflexed, < petals, ovate to elliptic; petals 4–5 mm, ovate to elliptic; filaments generally widened distally; ovary superior. Fruit: purple.
2n=48. Mossy rocks, cliffs; < 2500 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n&c Sierra Nevada (uncommon); to Alaska, Montana. Proximal flowers seem not to be replaced by ± pink vegetative bulblets in California. Sometimes confused with Micranthes odontoloma, which has untoothed, triangular leaf lobes and 2-spotted petals. Feb–Jul [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Saxifraga hyperborea
Next taxon: Saxifragopsis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 15 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Saxifraga, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43374, accessed on Apr 15 2014

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Bioregions in which Saxifraga mertensiana occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.