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SARRACENIACEAE PITCHER-PLANT FAMILY

Barry A. Rice

Perennial herb, generally from slender rhizome, short caudex, or stolon; carnivorous; roots poorly developed. Leaf: in basal rosette, prostrate to erect, each forming a tubular pitcher with fluid that digests captured prey by enzymes, bacteria, or other organisms, with stiff, reflexed hairs within. Inflorescence: scapose, flower generally 1. Flower: bisexual, radial, nodding; sepals 5 [4–6], generally free; petals 5 [0]; stamens many; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 5, incomplete above or not, placentas generally axile, style 1, 5-lobed, umbrella-like or not, stigma terminal or under tips of style lobes. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal; valves generally 5. Seed: many, flattened-ovoid, smooth, or club-like, papillate [winged].
3 genera, 24 species: northern California, Oregon, British Columbia, eastern North America, northern South America, especially acidic bogs, streamsides, moist areas; often planted outside native ranges by horticulturists but generally not invasive. [Schnell 2002 Carnivorous Plants of US and Can. Timber Press] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Sarraceniaceae

SARRACENIA PITCHER-PLANT
Leaf: pitcher top generally with vertical or overhanging lid [top dome-like, without glassy-transparent windows, only in Sarracenia psittacina and its hybrids], opening generally upward, tube with digestive fluids within. Flower: sepals, petals 5; ovary chambers 5, style tip umbrella-like, peltate.
11 species: eastern United States, eastern Canada to British Columbia. (Michel S. Sarrazin, Quebec physician, naturalist, 1659–1735) Many species, hybrids (traits intermediate) planted in northern California (Mendocino, Del Norte cos.; expected elsewhere), proliferating slowly if at all.

S. purpurea L.
NATURALIZED
Leaf: ascending to nearly erect, < 20 cm, green-yellow to deep red, enlarged upward. Inflorescence: 20–60 cm. Flower: sepals 2–6 cm, ovate to rhombic, abaxially green to dark purple-red, adaxially pale green, dark purple-red near margins or not; petals 2–6 cm, obovate, tapered to a short claw, purple-red (green); style tip ± 3–5 cm wide. Fruit: 1–2.5 cm, ± spheric to ovoid, 5-lobed. Seed: 1–2 mm, flattened, ovate-oblong, brown to ± purple.
2n=26. Acidic seeps, marshes, bogs; < 1200 m. North Coast (Mendocino Co.), Klamath Ranges (Del Norte Co.), n High Sierra Nevada (Butterfly Valley), possibly elsewhere; native to eastern North America. Despite eradication (easily accomplished by hand), plants continue to appear outside cultivation, especially in North Coast, northern High Sierra Nevada, due to replanting. Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpurea (pitchers smooth, glabrous abaxially) and Sarracenia purpurea subsp. venosa (Raf.) Wherry (pitchers rough or hairy abaxially), both recognized taxonomically, as well as intermediates between the two, in addition to other sp., often planted outside cultivated in California, where they persist and reproduce vegetatively at slow rates. May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sarracenia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43271, accessed on Dec 19 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sarracenia purpurea Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.