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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Apiaceae
Biennial, perennial herb, rhizomed or tap- or tuberous-rooted, glabrous or minutely scabrous. Stem: generally spreading to erect. Leaf: blade oblong-ovate to obovate, entire to ternately, palmately, or pinnately lobed, dissected, or compound. Inflorescence: heads simple, in cymes or racemes, dense, of bisexual and staminate (staminate only) flowers; bracts entire or lobed, < to > heads; bisexual flowers pedicelled or not, staminate generally long-pedicelled. Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent, occasionally fused; petals wide, yellow, purple, or ± white (pale red-orange), tips narrowed, generally lobed; styles long or short; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: oblong-ovate to round, ± compressed side-to-side; fruit-halves ± cylindric, prickly to scaly or tubercled; ribs 0; oil tubes evident or obscure, regularly or irregularly arranged; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face flat or grooved.Key to Sanicula
± 40 species: temperate, ± worldwide. (Latin: to heal) [Bell 1954 Univ Calif Publ Bot 27:133–230]
Plant 12–60 cm, taprooted. Leaf: simple, 1–2-pinnately dissected, green, glaucous, or ± purple; blade 4–19 cm, oblong-ovate to ± round, main divisions generally 7 or more, generally narrow, sharply toothed. Inflorescence: peduncle 0.5–16 cm; bracts ± fused at base, 6–8, 2.5 mm, < heads, lanceolate; pedicel of bisexual flower 0, of staminate 2 mm, < fruit. Flower: bisexual 8–10, staminate 10–12; calyx lobes ± fused at base, 0.8–1 mm, widely lanceolate, acute; corolla purple or yellow; styles 2 × calyx lobes. Fruit: 3–8 per head, 3–6 mm, ovate to round; prickles stout, curved, inflated, bulbous-based. Seed: face concave.
2n=16. Open grassland, generally on serpentine, or pine/oak woodland; 20–1850 m. Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), Central Western California, Southwestern California, Modoc Plateau; to British Columbia, Baja California. Mar–May [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Sanicula bipinnata
Next taxon: Sanicula crassicaulis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sanicula, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43166, accessed on Aug 1 2014
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© 2002 Julie Kierstead Nelson
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