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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae

Perennial herb; hairs 0 or not glandular. Leaf: alternate, odd-1-pinnately compound; leaflets toothed < 1/3 to midvein. Inflorescence: spike, head-like; peduncle long; pedicel bractlets 2, subtended by 1 bract. Flower: bisexual; hypanthium urn-shaped, bractlets 0; sepals generally 4; petals 0; stamens 2–4, filaments not thread-like; pistils 1(2), ovary superior, continuous to style at top, stigma generally ± bushy, exserted. Fruit: hypanthium enclosing achene(s), 4-angled, hard.
15 species: northern temperate, arctic. (Latin: blood-absorbing, from styptic properties) Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Poteridium, Poterium.
Unabridged references: [Nordborg 1966 Opera Bot 11:1–103]

S. officinalis L. GREAT BURNET
Rhizome thick, creeping. Stem: erect, generally 50–140 cm. Leaf: basal present at flower, largest generally 20–40 cm; leaflets 3–6 per side, largest blade 25–50 mm, ovate-oblong, stalk 3–25 mm, teeth generally > 15. Inflorescence: generally 12–20 mm, 7–10 mm wide, ± elliptic-ovoid, > 20-flowered; peduncle 3–15 cm; bract, pedicel bractlets ± 1 mm wide. Flower: sepals 2–3.5 mm, elliptic-ovate, dark ± purple. Fruit: 2.5–3.5 mm, short-winged on 2 angles, ± winged on others; faces ± smooth.
Bogs, streams, often serpentine; 120–1400 m. c North Coast, nw Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges; to Alaska. [Sanguisorba muricata Presl] Study needed to evaluate taxonomic viability of Sanguisorba officinalis subsp. microcephala (C. Presl) Calder & Roy L. Taylor. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sanguisorba, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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click for enlargement Sanguisorba officinalis
See CalPhotos for additional images
2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sanguisorba officinalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.