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ALISMATACEAE WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY

Charles E. Turner, Robert R. Haynes & C. Barre Hellquist

Annual, perennial herb from caudices, corms, stolons, rhizomes, or tubers, aquatic (± emergent or on mud); roots fibrous, septate or not; monoecious, dioecious, or flowers bisexual. Stem: caudex short. Leaf: basal, simple, palmately veined, floating or not; submersed generally linear to ovate; emergent linear to sagittate. Inflorescence: generally scapose, umbel-, raceme-, or panicle-like; flowers, branches whorled. Flower: radial; sepals 3, generally green, generally persistent; petals 3, generally > sepals, white or pink; stamens 6–many; pistils 6–many, free or ± fused at base. Fruit: achene, generally compressed, beaked.
± 12 genera, 75–100 species: especially tropics, subtropics. [Haynes & Hellquist 2000 FNANM 22:7–25] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Rogers 1983 J Arnold Arbor 64:383–420]

Key to Alismataceae

SAGITTARIA ARROWHEAD
Annual, perennial herb; roots septate; generally monoecious; scape generally straight at inflorescence. Leaf: petiole cylindric to 3-angled; submersed blades tapered to base; floating or emergent blades generally sagittate (linear to ovate). Inflorescence: lowest node generally with 3 pistillate flowers, those above generally staminate. Flower: sepals 3–10 mm, reflexed to appressed in fruit; petals generally entire. Staminate flower: stamens 7–30. Pistillate flower: receptacle convex; pistils many, spiralled on convex receptacle. Fruit: body generally 2–3.5 mm, strongly compressed, abaxially winged or ridged; beak generally lateral, spreading to erect.
± 30 species: worldwide, especially America. (Latin: arrow, from leaf shape) Some species weedy; tubers of some eaten by humans, wildlife; Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush reportedly persisting at Stafford Lake and Chileno Laguna, Marin Co.
Unabridged references: [Bogin 1955 Mem New York Bot Gard 9:179–233]

Key to Sagittaria

S. cuneata E. Sheld.
NATIVE
Perennial herb; tuber oblong, ± white or ± blue. Leaf: petioles of emergent leaves recurved, blades 2.5–17 cm, sagittate, basal lobes < terminal. Staminate flower: filaments glabrous. Pistillate flower: pedicel ascending in fruit; sepals reflexed in fruit. Fruit: beak terminal, erect, 0.1–0.4 mm.
2n=22. Ponds, slow streams; < 2500 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province; to southern Canada, northern United States, Texas. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sagittaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=42599, accessed on Sep 18 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sagittaria cuneata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.