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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens 3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Polygonaceae
Annual to perennial herb; glabrous or papillate and hairy; rhizomed, stoloned, or generally from taproot with a short caudex; occasionally dioecious. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or generally erect to ascending, often ± ridged, red-brown in fruit, nodes ± swollen. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate, petioled except uppermost cauline; ocreae deciduous to persistent. Inflorescence: axillary or generally terminal, generally panicle-like. Flower: generally bisexual, bell-shaped, glabrous, green, ± pink, or red; perianth lobes 6, persistent, in fruit outer 3 ± inconspicuous, inner 3 enlarged, hardened, ± veiny, covering fruit, midrib of 1–3 often expanded into tubercle; stamens 6; stigmas 3, fringed. Fruit: achene, glabrous, ± black or dark brown to ± red.Key to Rumex
190–200 species: ± worldwide, 63 in North America. (Latin: sorrel) Mature inner perianth lobes generally needed for identification. Species often hybridize.
Annual, biennial (short-lived perennial herb), glabrous; taproot vertical or subvertical. Stem: erect, 2.5–7.5 dm, generally stout (appearing perennial herb), branched above. Leaf: blade 6–12(15) cm, (2)3–4(5) cm wide, oblanceolate to elliptic, base widely tapered or rounded (truncate), margin entire, generally flat (± wavy), tip generally obtuse. Inflorescence: terminal, ± open, interrupted, branches bent at nodes, arched; whorls 10–20-flowered; pedicels 3–8 mm, thread-like, joints swollen. Flower: inner perianth lobe 2.5–3.5(4) mm, 2–2.8(3) mm wide except teeth, widely ovate-triangular to ± deltate, base truncate, margin generally dentate, teeth <= 0.5 mm, 2–3, on both sides, triangular; tubercles 3, ovoid, generally unequal, width ± 1/3 lobe. Fruit: 1.8–2.3 mm, 1.2–1.5 mm wide, brown to red-brown.
2n=20. Uncommon. Wet places along streams, rivers; < 1000 m. Deltaic Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, South Coast, w Desert, reported from South Coast Ranges (Salinas Valley); to Texas, Mexico, also Massachusetts. Mar–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Rumex venosus
Next taxon: Sidotheca
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 4 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rumex, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=42441, accessed on Jul 4 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rumex violascens|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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