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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Mihai Costea, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Polygonaceae


Scott Simono

Annual to perennial herb; glabrous or papillate and hairy; rhizomed, stoloned, or generally from taproot with a short caudex; occasionally dioecious. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or generally erect to ascending, often ± ridged, red-brown in fruit, nodes ± swollen. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate, petioled except uppermost cauline; ocreae deciduous to persistent. Inflorescence: axillary or generally terminal, generally panicle-like. Flower: generally bisexual, bell-shaped, glabrous, green, ± pink, or red; perianth lobes 6, persistent, in fruit outer 3 ± inconspicuous, inner 3 enlarged, hardened, ± veiny, covering fruit, midrib of 1–3 often expanded into tubercle; stamens 6; stigmas 3, fringed. Fruit: achene, glabrous, ± black or dark brown to ± red.
190–200 species: ± worldwide, 63 in North America. (Latin: sorrel) Mature inner perianth lobes generally needed for identification. Species often hybridize.

Key to Rumex

R. triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech. f.
Perennial herb, glabrous; rhizomes 0 or short-creeping, taproot vertical. Stem: ascending to erect, (3)4–10 dm, with axillary shoots below 1° inflorescence. Leaf: blade 6–17 cm, 1–4(5) cm wide, linear to lanceolate, base tapered, margin entire, flat to wavy, tip acute. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, dense, interrupted or not, branches branched; whorls 10–25-flowered; pedicels 4–8 mm, thread-like, ± thicker distally, joints ± not swollen. Flower: inner perianth lobes, (2)2.5–3.5(4) mm, (2)2.5–3(3.5) mm wide, widely triangular, base truncate or rounded, margin entire or ± notched near base, tip generally acute; tubercles generally 3, ± equal, width < 1/3 lobe (if 1 then width >= 1/2 lobe), glabrous or minute-warty. Fruit: 1.7–2.2 mm, 1–1.5 mm wide, brown to dark red-brown.
2n=20. Many habitats, often marginal or disturbed; < 3000 m. High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), San Gabriel Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province; North America, Mexico; naturalized in Europe. [Rumex salicifolius var. triangulivalvis (Danser) J.C. Hickman] Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Rumex transitorius
Next taxon: Rumex utahensis


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rumex, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rumex triangulivalvis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.