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POLYGONACEAE BUCKWHEAT FAMILY

Mihai Costea & James L. Reveal, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera revised in consultation with James L. Reveal, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Polygonaceae

RUMEX DOCK

Scott Simono

Annual to perennial herb; glabrous or papillate and hairy; rhizomed, stoloned, or generally from taproot with a short caudex; occasionally dioecious. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or generally erect to ascending, often ± ridged, red-brown in fruit, nodes ± swollen. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate, petioled except uppermost cauline; ocreae deciduous to persistent. Inflorescence: axillary or generally terminal, generally panicle-like. Flower: generally bisexual, bell-shaped, glabrous, green, ± pink, or red; perianth lobes 6, persistent, in fruit outer 3 ± inconspicuous, inner 3 enlarged, hardened, ± veiny, covering fruit, midrib of 1–3 often expanded into tubercle; stamens 6; stigmas 3, fringed. Fruit: achene, glabrous, ± black or dark brown to ± red.
190–200 species: ± worldwide, 63 in North America. (Latin: sorrel) Mature inner perianth lobes generally needed for identification. Species often hybridize.

Key to Rumex

R. fueginus Phil. GOLDEN DOCK
NATIVE
Annual (biennial), generally pubescent, papillate, at least on inflorescence; taproot vertical, fusiform. Stem: prostrate to erect, (0.4)1.5–6(7) dm, generally branched, sometimes stout, hollow. Leaf: blade (3)5–25(30) cm, (1)1.5–3(4) cm wide, lance-linear to lanceolate (oblong), base cordate, truncate, or tapered, margin generally entire, wavy, tip acute (obtuse). Inflorescence: terminal, dense, interrupted below, generally red-brown, red, or green-yellow; whorls generally 15–30-flowered; pedicels 3–7(9) mm, joints weak, generally not swollen. Flower: inner perianth lobes 1.5–2.5 mm, 0.7–0.9(1.2) mm wide except teeth, narrow-triangular or -kite-shaped, base truncate or widely tapered, tip acute, margins generally dentate (subentire) with teeth 2–3, 1–3 mm, generally 1.5–2.5(4) × width of lobe, on both sides, thin, bristle-like; tubercles 3, ± equal, <= 1/2 width of lobes, lance-linear to fusiform, ± brown or ± red, generally net-like, pitted, tips ± acute. Fruit: 1–1.4 mm, 0.6–0.8 mm wide, light brown.
2n=40. Riparian, disturbed places, shores, marshes, bogs, wet meadows; < 2000 m. California; most of North America, Mexico, South America; introduced in Europe. [Rumex maritimus L., misappl.] Highly variable in size, color, leaves, inner perianth lobes; alluvial plants sometimes dwarfed, with branched stems ± prostrate to ascending. May–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Rumex hymenosepalus

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rumex, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=42405, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rumex fueginus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.