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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae


Lawrence A. Alice

Generally shrub; (dioecious). Stem: persisting 1–2 years, rooting at tips and/or nodes or not, erect or arched to mounded or prostrate, 5-angled or not, hairy or glabrous, glaucous or not, stalked glands present or not; bristles or prickles 0–many, prickles stout and wide-based or weak and slender, straight or curved. Leaf: simple, palmately lobed, to palmately compound, leaflets 3 or 5(11), toothed, abaxially ± glabrous to densely hairy; stipules thread-like to ovate or elliptic. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like cyme, axillary or terminal; pedicel bractlets 0. Flower: generally bisexual; hypanthium flat to saucer-shaped, bractlets 0; sepals persistent, reflexed to ascending, ovate or lance-ovate, hairy or glabrous, stalked or sessile glands present or not, tip pointed, prickly or not; petals widely obovate, spoon-shaped, or elliptic, white to ± pink or magenta; stamens generally >> 20, filaments thread- or strap-like; pistils 5–150, receptacle flat or convex to conical, spongy, generally elongated in fruit, ovaries superior, hairy or glabrous, styles long, slender or short, thick, glabrous or hairy; ovules 2, 1 maturing. Fruit: fleshy-coated achenes, aggregate of few to many, yellow, orange, red, or black, generally falling as unit, separating with (blackberry-type) or without (raspberry-type) receptacle attached.
400–750 species: worldwide except Antarctica, especially northern temperate. (Latin: red; ancient name for bramble, blackberry)
Unabridged references: [Alice & Campbell 1999 Amer J Bot 86:81–97]

Key to Rubus

R. ursinus Cham. & Schltdl. CALIFORNIA BLACKBERRY
Plant prostrate to decumbent; generally dioecious; bristles or prickles generally many, weak, slender, straight. Stem: 2–10 mm diam, not angled, ± glabrous to hairy, ± with stalked glands, glaucous, persisting 2 years, rooting at tips. Leaf: simple or compound, leaflets 3(5), terminal triangular-ovate, irregularly coarse-toothed, tip acute, abaxially sparsely to densely gray-hairy, stipules thread-like to linear, <= 1 mm wide. Inflorescence: cyme, flowers 1–5. Flower: generally unisexual; sepals hairy, prickly, ± with stalked glands; petals 6–8(11) mm in pistillate, 10–15(18) mm in staminate, elliptic to round, white; filaments thread-like; pistils > 30, styles long, slender, ovaries glabrous or hairy. Fruit: blackberry-type, black.
2n=42,49,56,63,77,84,91. Common. Open, disturbed areas; < 1500 m. California Floristic Province; to British Columbia, Idaho, Baja California. [Rubus eastwoodianus Rydb.; Rubus lemurum S.W. Br.; Rubus macropetalus Douglas ex Hook.; Rubus sirbenus L.H. Bailey; Rubus titanus L.H. Bailey; Rubus ursinus subsp. macropetalus (Douglas ex Hook.) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde; Rubus ursinus var. eastwoodianus (Rydb.) J.T. Howell; Rubus ursinus var. macropetalus (Douglas ex Hook.) S.W. Br.; Rubus ursinus var. medusae S.W. Br.; Rubus ursinus var. pentaphyllus S.W. Br.; Rubus ursinus var. sirbenus (L.H. Bailey) J.T. Howell; Rubus ursinus var. vitifolius (Cham. & Schltdl.) Focke; Rubus vitifolius Cham. & Schltdl.; Rubus vitifolius var. eastwoodianus (Rydb.) Munz; Rubus vitifolius var. titanus (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey; Rubus vitifolius subsp. ursinus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Abrams] Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Parent of several cultivars, especially loganberry, boysenberry.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rubus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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click for enlargement Rubus ursinus
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2005 Doreen L. Smith

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rubus ursinus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.