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LYTHRACEAE LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY

Shirley A. Graham

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: 4-angled or cylindric. Leaf: simple, entire, generally opposite, 4-ranked (alternate, whorled). Inflorescence: flowers terminal or in axils of upper leaves or leaf-like bracts, 1 or in ± dense cymes or along short shoots, sessile or not, subtended by [0]2 bractlets. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium bell-shaped to cylindric, membranous or leathery, persistent in fruit; sepals appearing as hypanthium lobes, 4–9, epicalyx lobes alternate sepals or 0; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4–6 or 0, alternate sepals, crinkled, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 × sepals, included or exserted; ovary generally superior, chambers 2–6[many], style generally slender, stigma head-like. Fruit: dry capsule or leathery berry, dehiscent into 2–4 valves or irregularly. Seed: 3–many.
± 28 genera, 600 species: temperate, tropics, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes. [Graham et al. 2005 Int J Plant Sci 166:995–1017] "Epicalyx lobes" (lobes on calyx) formerly called "appendages," "hypanthium" in Lythraceae (and Onagraceae) including receptacle, sometimes called "flower cup" or "flower tube". Punicaceae (Punica) included here. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Lythraceae

ROTALA
Annual, perennial herb, glabrous. Stem: spreading to erect, generally branched, 4-angled to rounded. Leaf: opposite, 4-ranked (whorled), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per axil on main shoots and on short axillary shoots, sessile. Flower: radial; hypanthium bell- to ± urn-shaped; sepals generally 4, epicalyx lobes 4 or 0; petals 4, minute, < sepals; stamens generally 4, ± included (exserted). Fruit: capsule, oblong to ± spheric, golden, wall finely transversely striate at 10× thin, dry, valves 2–4. Seed: many, < 1 mm.
± 48 species: temperate, tropics. (Latin: wheel-like) [Baskin et al. 2002 Wetlands (Wilmington) 22:661–668]

Key to Rotala

R. indica (Willd.) Koehne
NATURALIZED
Stem: 1–4 dm. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per axil on main shoots and on short axillary shoots, bractlets lance-linear, ± = hypanthium. Flower: hypanthium 1–2.5 mm; sepals acutely deltate; petals pink; stamens generally 4, ± included. Fruit: oblong.
Marshes, ponds; < 100 m. Sacramento Valley; Louisiana, rice-field weed in Europe; native to southeastern Asia. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 15 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rotala, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=41723, accessed on Sep 15 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rotala indica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.