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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Perennial herb [annual], ± scapose, base bulb-like or from tubers [taproot]; herbage ± glabrous to generally sparse-soft-hairy. Stem: erect. Leaf: basal long-petioled, reniform to round, shallow-lobed or toothed; cauline few, reduced, alternate [generally opposite]. Inflorescence: open; pedicels present. Flower: corolla > calyx, bell- to funnel-shaped, white, generally yellow in throat; stamens included, subequal; ovary chambers appearing 2, style 1, thread-like, included, ± 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, oblong to ovoid to obovoid. Seed: many, ovoid, angled, brown, pitted.Key to Romanzoffia
5 species: California, Alaska, Montana, western Canada. (Count N.P. Romanzoff, 1754–1826, promoter of Russian expedition to California in 1816)
Plant 10–40 cm; tubers clustered, ovoid, green to brown, tomentose. Leaf: petioles 2–12 cm, ± widened at base, not overlapped; blade 8–45 mm wide. Inflorescence: exceeding leaves, glandular or not; pedicels slender, 1–3 cm in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 2–5 mm, lance-linear, generally acute, occasionally glabrous, glandular or not; corolla 5–12 mm; ovary sparse-soft-hairy, glandular; style 4–7 mm. Fruit: 6–10 mm.
n=11. Ocean bluffs, roadbanks, wet cliffs, moist rocky areas; < 800 m. Northwestern California, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; to Washington. Mar–May [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Romanzoffia
Next taxon: Romanzoffia sitchensis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Romanzoffia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=41552, accessed on Mar 29 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Romanzoffia californica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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