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ANACARDIACEAE SUMAC or CASHEW FAMILY

John M. Miller & Dieter H. Wilken, except as noted

Shrub, tree; generally dioecious or flowers bisexual and unisexual; resin clear, often weathering black, generally aromatic, latex milky or 0. Leaf: simple to ternate- or odd-pinnate-compound, alternate, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flowers generally many. Flower: generally unisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, base generally ± fused; petals 5, generally > sepals, free; (perianth parts 1–7 in Pistacia); stamens 4–7 or 10, vestigial in pistillate flowers; ovary superior, vestigial or 0 in staminate flowers, subtended by ± lobed, disk-like nectary, chamber generally 1, ovule generally 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: drupe-like, generally ± flat, sticky or not, hairs short or 0; pulp ± resinous, aromatic or not.
70+ genera, ± 850 species: tropics, warm temperate; some ornamental (Rhus, Schinus), cultivated for fruit (Anacardium, cashew; Mangifera, mango; Pistacia, pistachio). TOXIC: many genera produce contact dermatitis. [Yi et al. 2007 Syst Bot 32:379–391] —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Pell 2004 Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge; Cronquist et al. 1997 Anacardiaceae In: Intermountain Flora 3A:313–317; Wannan & Quinn 1991 Bot J Linn Soc 107:349–385; Wannan & Quinn 1990 Bot J Linn Soc 103:225–252; Ibe & Leis 1979 Bull Torrey Bot Club 106:140–144; Brizicky 1963 J Arnold Arbor 44:60–80]

Key to Anacardiaceae

RHUS
Shrub, tree; dioecious or flowers bisexual and pistillate. Leaf: simple or compound, deciduous or evergreen, entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: panicle, terminal on short twigs, open to dense; flowers ± sessile. Flower: stamens 5; styles 3, free or ± fused. Fruit: spheric or ± flat, glabrous or glandular-hairy, generally ± red; pulp thin or thick, ± resinous.
± 150 species: warm temperate. (Greek: ancient name for sumac) [Yi et al. 2004 Molec Phylogen Evol 33:861–879]
Unabridged references: [Burke & Hamrick 2002 J Heredity 93:37–41; Miller et al. 2001 Int J Plant Sci 162:1401–1407; Li et al. 1999 J Torrey Bot Soc 126:279–288; Cronquist 1997 In: Intermountain Flora 3A: 313–315; Wannan & Quinn 1991 Bot J Linn Soc 107:349–385; Wannan & Quinn 1990 Bot J Linn Soc 103:225–252; Brizicky 1963 J Arnold Arbor 44:60–80; Barkley 1937 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 24:265–498]
Unabridged note: 2 species with pinnately compound leaves native to eastern North America, Utah, cultivated in California: Rhus glabra L., smooth sumac (petioles, young stems glabrous), Rhus typhina L., staghorn sumac (petioles, young stems densely hairy).

Key to Rhus

R. aromatica Aiton SKUNK BUSH
NATIVE
Plant 0.5–2.5 m. Leaf: deciduous, thin, flat; petiole 5–15 mm; lobes or leaflets generally 3, crenate to ± lobed, abaxially tomentose to ± glabrous; terminal lobe or leaflet 10–35 mm, ± diamond-shaped, lateral 5–18 mm, generally ovate. Inflorescence: appearing before leaves; branches short, stiff. Flower: sepals yellow-green to ± red; petals generally yellow. Fruit: 5–8 mm diam, sparsely hairy, sticky, generally bright red-orange.
Slopes, washes, scrub; < 2200 m. California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert (except c), n Sonoran Desert; to southern Canada, central United States, northern Mexico. [Rhus trilobata Nutt.] Mar–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rhus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=41175, accessed on Nov 25 2014

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click for enlargement Rhus aromatica
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© 2010 Jean Pawek

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rhus aromatica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.