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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae


Kathleen A. Kron & Walter S. Judd

Shrub to tree, glabrous, hairy, and/or with glandular scale-like hairs. Stem: prostrate to erect, bark thin, sometimes peeling or shredding. Leaf: alternate, evergreen or deciduous, ovate to obovate to elliptic, margin entire, flat to rolled under. Inflorescence: raceme, 1–many-flowered, bracts green to red-brown. Flower: sepals, petals generally 5, corolla radial to bilateral, 1–5 cm, petals free to ± fused, spots or blotch present or 0; anther awns 0; ovary superior. Fruit: capsule, septicidal, dehiscing base to tip or tip to base, placentas axile. Seed: many, fusiform, ± flat to not, wings and/or tails present or 0.
± 1000 species: northern hemisphere, tropical Asia, to Australia. (Greek: rose tree)
Unabridged references: [Chamberlain 1982. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 39:209–486; Cullen 1980 Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 39:1–207]

Key to Rhododendron

R. occidentale (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray CALIFORNIA AZALEA
Hairs sparse to dense, glandular or not. Stem: <= 8 m, densely branched, hairy. Leaf: (2.5)3.5–8.2(10.8) cm, (0.8)1.2–2.9(3.6) cm wide, deciduous, margin ciliate. Inflorescence: short, 3–15-flowered, bracts red-brown, margins ciliate or glandular. Flower: corolla widely funnel-shaped, white to pink to salmon, upper petal yellow- to orange-blotched; stamens 5, ± equal. Fruit: longer than wide, dehiscing tip to base. Seed: ovate to fusiform, coat expanded around seed.
2n=26. Streambanks, ocean bluffs, moist wooded slopes and canyon bottoms, serpentine ridges; < 2700 m. Northwestern California (except High North Coast Ranges), High Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; Oregon. Apr–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rhododendron, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Rhododendron occidentale
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Charles Thoreau Townsend 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rhododendron occidentale Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.