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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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[Perennial herb] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1–5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short-shoots. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4–5; petals 0, 4–5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4–5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or ± inferior, chambers 2–4, 1–2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2–3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe.
50–52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtropics some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus). [Richardson et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1309–1324] —Scientific Editors: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1965 J Arnold Arbor 45:439–463; Richardson et al. 2000 Kew Bull 55:311–341]
Key to Rhamnaceae
Shrub, small tree, < 10 m. Stem: branches alternate, stiff or flexible; twigs generally not thorn-tipped; winter bud scales present, generally ± 3 mm. Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short-shoots, deciduous or evergreen; stipules generally deciduous; petioles generally glabrous; blade veins prominent or not. Inflorescence: flowers 1 or in cyme-like clusters in axils. Flower: unisexual (bisexual), generally on separate plants, generally < 3 mm; hypanthium bell-shaped to cup-like, 2–3 mm wide; sepals 4–5, thin, spreading, not keeled adaxially; petals 0 or 4–5; disk thin, adhering to hypanthium; ovary appearing superior or partly inferior, chambers 2–4, each 1-ovuled, style 1, stigma 2–4-lobed. Fruit: drupe, 2–3-stoned.Key to Rhamnus
110 species: temperate, few tropics; some of value in medicine or as dyes. (Greek: name for plants of this genus) [Bolmgren & Oxelman 2004 Taxon 53:383–390] W.H. Brewer collected Rhamnus cathartica L., considered invasive in parts of United States, in 1861, but it apparently never naturalized. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Frangula.
Unabridged references: [Wolf 1938 Rancho Santa Ana Bot Gard Monogr 1]
Shrub, < 2 m. Stem: bark gray; branches few, generally flexible, generally ascending; twigs densely hairy. Leaf: evergreen; petiole 2–5 mm, hairy; blade 15–20 mm, ovate to round, thick, soft-hairy, abaxially flat to concave, base, tip rounded to acute, margin finely toothed, flat to rolled under, veins not prominent. Inflorescence: 1–6-flowered, soft-hairy; pedicel 2–4 mm. Flower: generally unisexual; hypanthium ± 2 mm wide; sepals 4; petals 0, 4. Fruit: 2-stoned, 6 mm, red.
Uncommon. Chaparral; 75–1650 m. s Peninsular Ranges (San Diego Co.). Jan–Mar [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Rhamnus crocea subsp. pilosa (Trel. ex Curran) C.B. Wolf; Rhamnus crocea Nutt. var. pilosa Trel. ex Curran]
Unabridged note: Sp. not known from Baja California or Arizona as reported in USDA Plants Database based on note in Abrams, L. 1960. An illustrated flora of the Pacific States. No specimens support the claim, but some specimens from RSA-POM approach Rhamnus pilosa morphologically. Expanded author citation: Rhamnus pilosa (Trel. ex Curran) Abrams
Previous taxon: Rhamnus ilicifolia
Next taxon: Rhamnus pirifolia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 6 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rhamnus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=41071, accessed on Oct 6 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Rhamnus pilosa|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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