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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Brassicaceae
Annual, biennial; hairs simple, rigid. Leaf: basal, proximal cauline petioled, pinnately lobed, margin dentate; distal cauline short-petioled to sessile, base not lobed. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: sepals erect, oblong to linear, base of inner pair sac-like; petals long-clawed, yellow, white, pink, or purple, veins darker. Fruit: silique or silicle, indehiscent, linear to lanceolate, oblong, or ovoid, segmented; proximal segment short, seedless; terminal segment seeded, beaked; stigma ± 2-lobed. Seed: in 1 row, wingless.Key to Raphanus
3 species: Mediterranean. (Greek: appearing rapidly, from seed germination)
Sparsely to densely hairy. Stem: (2)3–8 dm, reflexed-hairy. Leaf: blade 3–15(22) cm, 1–5 cm wide, oblong, obovate, or oblanceolate, lyre-shaped to pinnately lobed; lateral lobes 1–4 pairs, dentate; distal cauline ± sessile, dentate. Flower: sepals 7–11 mm; petals 15–25 mm, 4–7 mm wide, claw 8–14 mm. Fruit: cylindric to narrowly lanceolate; proximal segment 1–1.5 mm; terminal segment (1.5)2–11(14) cm, (2.5)3–8(11) mm wide, woody; pedicel ascending to spreading, 0.7–2.5 cm. Seed: 2.5–3.5 mm, ovoid to oblong.
2n=18. Disturbed areas, fields; < 1100 m. California Floristic Province, Great Basin Floristic Province; North America; native to Mediterranean Europe. Hybridizes with Raphanus sativus to produce swarms highly variable in flower color and fruit constriction. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Raphanus
Next taxon: Raphanus sativus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jan 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Raphanus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40991, accessed on Jan 30 2015
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Raphanus raphanistrum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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