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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Shrub, tree, evergreen or not; monoecious.
Leaf: simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous.
Staminate inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike, many-flowered.
Pistillate inflorescence: 1–few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric.
Staminate flower: calyx generally 4–6-lobed, minute; petals 0; stamens 4–12+.
Pistillate flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3.
Fruit: 1 nut subtended, partly enclosed by scaly, cup-like involucre or 1–3 nuts subtended, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre; mature yrs 1–2.
Seed: generally 1.
7 genera, ± 900 species: generally n hemisphere. [Li et al. 2004 Int J Plant Sci 165:311–324] Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus), cork (Quercus suber), food (Castanea, chestnut). Lithocarpus densiflorus moved to Notholithocarpus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Li, R.-Q., Chen, Z.-D., Lu, A.-M., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Manos, P. S. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Fagales based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 311–324.]
Key to Fagaceae
Evergreen or not.Key to Quercus
Leaf: stipules small, generally early- deciduous.
Staminate inflorescence: catkins, 1–several, pendent, slender, proximal on twig.
Pistillate inflorescence: in upper leaf axils, short-stalked; flower generally 1.
Staminate flower: stamens 4–10.
Pistillate flower: calyx minute, generally 6-lobed; ovary enclosed by involucre.
Fruit: nut 1, partly enclosed by cup-like involucre (cup) with appressed scales ( nut and cup = acorn); scales tubercled to not; mature yrs 1 (on younger stems) or 2 (on older stems).
± 600 species: n hemisphere, to n South America, India. (Latin: ancient name for oak) [Manos et al. 1999 Molec Phylogen Evol 12:333–349] Many named hybrids; those (3) treated here form widespread populations; most others occur as single individuals, and some but not all of these are mentioned here, under the first parent treated (alphabetically). Reproduction of many species declining due to habitat degradation or loss as well as disease.
Unabridged references: [Manos, P. S., Doyle, J. J., & Nixon, K. C. 1999. Phylogeny, biogeography, and processes of molecular differentiation of Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae). Molec Phylogen Evol 12: 333–349.]
Shrub < 1.5 m, prostrate to spreading, evergreen; twigs slender, pliable, glabrous.
Leaf: 1.5–4 cm; petiole 3–6 mm; blade ± oblong, adaxially glabrous, green, abaxially glabrous, dull, pale green, tip obtuse to acute, margin entire to mucro-toothed.
Fruit: cup 10–12 mm wide, 4–6 mm deep, thin, generally cup-shaped, scales ± tubercled to not; nut 10–15 mm, ovoid to ± spheric, tip rounded; shell thin, subglabrous to sparsely tomentose inside; mature yr 2.
Steep slopes, ridges, conifer forest, subalpine; 150–2930 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau;
Previous taxon: Quercus turbinella
Next taxon: Quercus wislizeni
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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