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FAGACEAE OAK FAMILY

John M. Tucker

Shrub, tree, evergreen or not; monoecious. Leaf: simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous. Staminate inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike, many-flowered. Pistillate inflorescence: 1–few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric. Staminate flower: calyx generally 4–6-lobed, minute; petals 0; stamens 4–12+. Pistillate flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3. Fruit: 1 nut subtended, partly enclosed by scaly, cup-like involucre or 1–3 nuts subtended, enclosed by spiny, bur-like involucre; mature years 1–2. Seed: generally 1.
7 genera, ± 900 species: generally northern hemisphere. [Li et al. 2004 Int J Plant Sci 165:311–324] Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus), cork (Quercus suber), food (Castanea, chestnut). Lithocarpus densiflorus moved to Notholithocarpus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Li, R.-Q., Chen, Z.-D., Lu, A.-M., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Manos, P. S. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Fagales based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 311–324.]

Key to Fagaceae

QUERCUS OAK
Evergreen or not. Leaf: stipules small, generally early-deciduous. Staminate inflorescence: catkins, 1–several, pendent, slender, proximal on twig. Pistillate inflorescence: in upper leaf axils, short-stalked; flower generally 1. Staminate flower: stamens 4–10. Pistillate flower: calyx minute, generally 6-lobed; ovary enclosed by involucre. Fruit: nut 1, partly enclosed by cup-like involucre (cup) with appressed scales (nut and cup = acorn); scales tubercled to not; mature years 1 (on younger stems) or 2 (on older stems).
2n=24.
± 600 species: northern hemisphere, to northern South America, India. (Latin: ancient name for oak) [Manos et al. 1999 Molec Phylogen Evol 12:333–349] Many named hybrids; those (3) treated here form widespread populations; most others occur as single individuals, and some but not all of these are mentioned here, under the first parent treated (alphabetically). Reproduction of many species declining due to habitat degradation or loss as well as disease.
Unabridged references: [Manos, P. S., Doyle, J. J., & Nixon, K. C. 1999. Phylogeny, biogeography, and processes of molecular differentiation of Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae). Molec Phylogen Evol 12: 333–349.]

Key to Quercus

Q. lobata Née VALLEY OAK, ROBLE
NATIVE
Tree < 35 m, deciduous; trunk bark in age deeply checkered into ± square sections, ± light gray. Leaf: 5–12 cm; petiole 5–12 mm; blade obovate, adaxially often ± shiny, dark green, abaxially fine-tomentose, dull to pale green, tip obtuse to rounded, margin lobes 6–10 per leaf, deep, obtuse, generally coarsely 2–3-toothed at tip. Fruit: cup 14–30 mm wide, 10–30 mm deep, hemispheric, scales tubercled; nut 30–50 mm, 12–20 mm wide, generally long-conic, tip pointed, shell glabrous inside; mature year 1.
Slopes, valleys, savanna; < 1830 m. North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, nw South Coast, Channel Islands (Santa Cruz, Santa Catalina islands), Western Transverse Ranges, w San Gabriel Mountains. [Quercus lobata var. turbinata Jeps.; Quercus lobata var. walteri Jeps.] Hybridizes with Quercus berberidifolia, Quercus cornelius-mulleri, Quercus douglasii, Quercus engelmannii, Quercus garryana, Quercus john-tuckeri, Quercus pacifica (Quercus ×macdonaldii). Mar–Apr [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Quercus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40663, accessed on Sep 1 2014

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click for enlargement Quercus lobata
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1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Quercus lobata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.