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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae


Michael A. Vincent

Tree [(shrub)], thorny or not. Leaf: simple, toothed (entire). Inflorescence: few-flowered clusters at ends of short-shoots; pedicel bractlets generally 2–3, deciduous. Flower: hypanthium bractlets 0; stamens 20–30; ovary inferior, chambers 2–5, 2-ovuled, styles 2–5, ± free. Fruit: pome, generally ± obovoid; flesh gritty from stone cells.
± 25 species: northern temperate. (Latin: pear) Pyrus calleryana Dcne. (callery pear) possibly naturalized in California.
Unabridged note: Pyrus calleryana Dcne. (callery pear), distinguished from Pyrus communis by its small fruits and curved stipules, frequently escapes from cultivation in eastern United States. In California, collections from Sacramento Co. are likely from rootstocks of abandoned pear trees, but a collection from Butte Co. is of escaped saplings, suggesting potential for more widespread escape in California.

P. communis L. COMMON PEAR
Plant ± thorny (escaped plants). Leaf: 2–7 cm, ovate to wide-ovate or -elliptic, hairy in youth, glabrous in age, teeth rounded; petiole 22–45 mm. Flower: petals 10–15 mm, white; odorous. Fruit: 3–15 cm, 2–12 cm diam, calyx persistent.
2n=34. Disturbed places; < 1600 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, White and Inyo Mountains, Desert Mountains; native to Eurasia. Feb–Apr [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pyrus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pyrus communis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.