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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens 8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers awned or not, dehiscing by pores or slits; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Ericaceae
Perennial herb, evergreen, rhizomed. Leaf: ± basal, reniform, ovate, ± round, elliptic, or obovate, ± entire to round- or sharp-toothed, petioled. Inflorescence: raceme, ± erect, not 1-sided, elongate; peduncle smooth, glabrous; bracts generally 1–several, ovate or lanceolate. Flower: radial, ± closed or bilateral, ± open, parts in 5s, free; petals without tubercles, upper 2 generally forming hood over upturned stamens; stamens 10, filaments generally widened at base, smooth, glabrous, anther pores generally on tubes; nectary 0; ovary superior, style straight, ± included, or downcurved, exserted, stigma peltate, with 5 spreading lobes above a prominent, reflexed collar or not peltate, with 5 ± erect lobes projecting beyond a delicate, reflexed collar. Fruit: capsule, pendent; valves opening base to tip, margins fibrous.Key to Pyrola
± 15–20 species: generally circumboreal, high mountains of Central America, Sumatra. (Latin: little pear, ± from leaf shape) [Haber 1987 Syst Bot 12:324–335]
Leaf: ± 0 or generally 4–10 cm, ovate to elliptic, ± entire, abaxially often purple, adaxially dark green, veins white-bordered, or oblanceolate, entire to prominently toothed, abaxially often ± blue-waxy when young, adaxially dull green, veins not white-bordered. Inflorescence: < 4 dm including peduncle; bract < pedicel, lanceolate. Flower: bilateral, ± open; sepals generally >> 2 mm, ovate, acute; petals ± green, cream-white, or pink; anthers 2–5.5 mm, pore tube ± 1/3 as long; style downcurved, exserted, stigma lobes ± erect.
2n=46. Common. Dry ponderosa-pine forest; 400–2400 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Warner Mountains; to southwestern Canada, New Mexico. Variable, may hybridize with other species (pollen, seeds sometimes abortive). Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Pyrola minor
Next taxon: Rhododendron
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 9 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Pyrola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40452, accessed on Mar 9 2014
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