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ERICACEAE HEATH FAMILY

Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae

PYROLA WINTERGREEN

Gary D. Wallace & Erich Haber

Perennial herb, evergreen, rhizomed. Leaf: ± basal, reniform, ovate, ± round, elliptic, or obovate, ± entire to round- or sharp-toothed, petioled. Inflorescence: raceme, ± erect, not 1-sided, elongate; peduncle smooth, glabrous; bracts generally 1–several, ovate or lanceolate. Flower: radial, ± closed or bilateral, ± open, parts in 5s, free; petals without tubercles, upper 2 generally forming hood over upturned stamens; stamens 10, filaments generally widened at base, smooth, glabrous, anther pores generally on tubes; nectary 0; ovary superior, style straight, ± included, or downcurved, exserted, stigma peltate, with 5 spreading lobes above a prominent, reflexed collar or not peltate, with 5 ± erect lobes projecting beyond a delicate, reflexed collar. Fruit: capsule, pendent; valves opening base to tip, margins fibrous.
± 15–20 species: generally circumboreal, high mountains of Central America, Sumatra. (Latin: little pear, ± from leaf shape) [Haber 1987 Syst Bot 12:324–335]

Key to Pyrola

P. minor L. LESSER WINTERGREEN
NATIVE
Leaf: < 5 cm, ovate to oblong-obovate, entire to obscurely round-toothed. Inflorescence: < 2 dm (including peduncle); bract >> pedicel, lance-ovate, generally larger, wider at base of peduncle. Flower: ± radial, ± closed; sepals 1.5 mm, deltate, acute; petals white to ± pink; anthers < 1 mm, pore not on tube; style straight, ± included, stigma peltate, lobes spreading.
2n=46. Uncommon. Moist, mossy sites, high montane conifer forest; 2400–3000 m. Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada (except White and Inyo Mountains); circumboreal, to Alaska, eastern North America, also Eurasia. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged references: [Haber 1984 Canad J Bot 62:1054–1061]

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Next taxon: Pyrola picta

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pyrola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40451, accessed on Sep 17 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pyrola minor Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.