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ERICACEAE HEATH FAMILY

Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae

PYROLA WINTERGREEN

Diana D. Jolles

Perennial subshrub, evergreen, rhizomed. Leaf: ± basal, reniform, ovate, ± round, elliptic, or obovate, ± entire to crenate or dentate, generally petioled (if vestigial, lanceolate to deltate, ± not green, sessile). Inflorescence: raceme, ± erect, not 1-sided, elongate; scape smooth, glabrous, bracts generally 1–several, deltate or lanceolate; flower bract 1 per flower, < to >> pedicel. Flower: radial, ± closed or subradial or bilateral, ± open, parts in 5s, free; petals without tubercles, upper 2 generally forming hood over upturned stamens; stamens 10, filaments generally widened at base, smooth, glabrous, anther generally with tube-like constrictions subtending pores; nectary 0; ovary superior, style ± included and straight or generally exserted and downcurved, stigma peltate, with 5 spreading lobes above a prominent, reflexed collar or generally not peltate, generally with 5 ± erect lobes projecting beyond a delicate, reflexed collar. Fruit: capsule, pendent; valves opening base to tip, margins fibrous. Seed: ± 1000.
± 30 species: generally circumboreal, high mountains of Central America, Sumatra. (Latin: little pear, ± from leaf shape) [Jolles & Wolfe 2012 Syst Bot 37:468–477; Jolles & Wilson 2014 Taxon 63(4):789–800] Pyrola aphylla, Pyrola dentata newly recognized, added as native; Pyrola crypta newly described, added as native.

Key to Pyrola

P. chlorantha Sw. GREEN-FLOWERED WINTERGREEN
NATIVE
Leaf: generally present, < 4 cm; blade 1–2.5 cm, round, leathery, entire, adaxially dull, dark green, veins raised; petiole ± = blade. Inflorescence: < 3 dm including scape; flowers 1–10; flower bract < pedicel, narrowly lanceolate. Flower: bilateral, ± open; sepals generally < 1.8 mm, deltate; petals 5–9 cm, pale green to white; anthers 2–4 mm.
2n=46. Generally mixed conifer forest; 900–2200 m. Presumed extirpated but once known from High North Coast Ranges, High Sierra Nevada (to be sought in San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert Mountains); circumboreal, North America, Eurasia. Occasionally produces clones with highly reduced leaves, appearing to be leafless. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged synonyms: [Pyrola virens Schweigg.]
Unabridged references: [Haber 1988 Can J Bot 66:1993–2000; Knaben & Engelskjøn 1968 Arb Univ Bergen, Mat Naturvitensk, Ser 1967:1–71]

Previous taxon: Pyrola asarifolia subsp. bracteata
Next taxon: Pyrola crypta

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pyrola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40440, accessed on Dec 20 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pyrola chlorantha Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.