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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

PUCCINELLIA ALKALI GRASS

Jerrold I. Davis

Annual, perennial herb; stolons and rhizomes generally 0. Stem: decumbent to erect. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath open ± to base; ligule thinly membranous, acute to truncate, sometimes toothed. Inflorescence: panicle-like; lower branches reflexed to erect in fruit; spikelets stalked. Spikelet: bisexual; glumes < lowest floret, lower glume generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; florets 2–9; lemma generally firm, back generally rounded, sometimes weakly keeled near tip, margin entire to scabrous-serrate near tip at 10×, glabrous to ± puberulent at base and along the veins in lower 1/2, generally glabrous elsewhere on surface, generally faintly 5-veined; awn 0; palea ± = lemma.
± 120 species: temperate to arctic, North America, Eurasia, southern hemisphere. (B. Puccinelli, botanist, Italy, 1808–1850) [Davis & Consaul 2007 FNANM 24:459–477] Generally on wet saline or alkaline soils in coastal and inland habitats; some species difficult to separate without hand lens. Puccinellia maritima (Huds.) Parl. not in California.
Unabridged references: [Davis 1983 Syst Bot 8:341–353]

Key to Puccinellia

P. pumila (Vasey) Hitchc. DWARF ALKALI GRASS
NATIVE
Perennial herb. Leaf: cauline blade flat to inrolled, 1–3 mm wide when flat. Inflorescence: 3–20 cm; lower branches reflexed to ascending in fruit; spikelet stalk glabrous to sparsely scabrous. Spikelet: lemma tip acute to obtuse, margin near tip entire to sparsely finely scabrous, lower lemma 2.5–4.6 mm; anthers of lowest floret 0.5–1.2 mm.
2n=14,42,56. Marshes, flats; < 10 m. North Coast; to Alaska, northeastern North America, northeastern Asia. Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Puccinellia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40322, accessed on Sep 17 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Puccinellia pumila Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.