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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae


1 sp. (Greek: winged seed)

P. andromedea Nutt.
Perennial herb, non-green, ± pink, brown in age, densely sticky-glandular; roots brittle. Stem: 0. Leaf: 0. Inflorescence: raceme, 1.5–17 dm, pink to ± red, emerging from ground erect, persistent after seed dispersal, bracted, axis < 1.5 cm wide just below lowest flower; bractlets 0. Flower: pendent; sepals 5, free; corolla urn-shaped, petals 5, ± 4/5 fused, 6–9 mm, cream to ± yellow, lobes recurved; stamens 10, anthers dehiscing by separate slits, awned; ovary superior, chambers 5, placentas axile, style < 3 mm, jointed to ovary, stigma generally 1.5 mm wide, disk-like. Fruit: capsule, pendent, < 1.3 cm wide, loculicidal, dehiscing base to tip. Seed: many per chamber, < 0.2 mm wide, ovate; wing terminal, < 1 mm wide, membranous.
Mixed or conifer forest; 60–3700 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada (except White and Inyo Mountains); to British Columbia, Mexico; also eastern North America. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pterospora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 27 2015

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click for enlargement Pterospora andromedea
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© 1984 Gary A. Monroe

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pterospora andromedea Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.