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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Daniel Potter & Barbara Ertter, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Daniel Potter, except as noted

Annual to tree, glandular or not. Leaf: simple to palmately or pinnately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused (0), persistent to deciduous. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, cluster, or flowers 1; bractlets on pedicel ("pedicel bractlets") generally 0–3(many), subtended by bract or generally not. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, subtending bractlets ("hypanthium bractlets") 0–5, alternate sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0,1)5–many, anther pollen sacs generally 2; pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound, ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5. Fruit: 1–many per flower, achene (fleshy-coated or not), follicle, drupe, or pome with generally papery core, occasionally drupe-like with 1–5 stones. Seed: generally 1–5 (per fruit, not per flower).
110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for ornamental, fruit, especially Cotoneaster, Fragaria, Malus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Rosa, Rubus. [Potter et al. 2007 Plant Syst Evol 266:5–43] Number of teeth is per leaf or leaflet, not per side of leaf or leaflet, except in Drymocallis. —Scientific Editors: Daniel Potter, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332, 344–401, 611–662]

Key to Rosaceae


Barbara Ertter

Annual to perennial herb; odor generally 0. Leaf: generally basal, odd-1-pinnately, 1-palmately, or 1-ternately compound; leaflets 1–8(13) per side, ± toothed, generally ± separated, terminal generally ± = lateral; margins generally flat. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally ± open; pedicels generally ± straight, bractlets 0. Flower: hypanthium ± shallow, bractlets generally 5, generally < sepals, generally flat; sepals ± triangular; petals (2)4–20 mm, >= sepals, generally ± widely obcordate, generally yellow; stamens 10–25; pistils generally > 10, ovaries superior, styles slender to ± tapering, generally attached near fruit tip. Fruit: achene, generally glabrous.
± 400 species: mostly northern temperate, arctic. (Latin: diminutive of powerful, for reputed medicinal value) Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Comarum, Dasiphora, Drymocallis.

Key to Potentilla

Annual to short-lived perennial herb from taproot, nonglandular. Stem: ascending to erect, 10–70 cm; hairs spreading, sparse and long abaxially, denser and shorter adaxially. Leaf: generally ternate; basal often withered or fallen in flower; cauline generally 3–12 cm, leaflets generally 3, central 15–50 mm, oblanceolate, evenly 11–21-toothed ± 1/3 to midvein, ± hairy. Inflorescence: several to many-flowered. Flower: hypanthium 4–10 mm wide; petals 3–4 mm, < sepals; stamens 15–20, filaments 0.5–2 mm, anthers ± 0.3 mm; style ± 0.8 mm, tapered from rough-thickened base. Fruit: ± 1 mm, veined, light brown.
2n=56,63,70. Moist, disturbed areas; < 2300 m. c High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada; North America, native to Eurasia. Distribution of native America, naturalized Eurasian plants needs study. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Potentilla pensylvanica


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Potentilla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Potentilla norvegica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.