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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae


1 sp. (Thomas C. Porter, United States botanist, 1822–1901)

P. carnosula (Hook. & Arn.) Torr.
Annual, 2–30 cm, emergent or terrestrial, glabrous. Stem: erect, branches from base or 0. Leaf: cauline, sessile; blade (5)12–15 mm, (1)3–5 mm wide, narrowly ovate (aerial) to narrowly triangular (submersed), entire or few-toothed. Inflorescence: raceme; bract 1 per flower, leaf-like, ascending; pedicels in fruit 1–3 cm. Flower: inverted, fragrant; hypanthium 1–2.5 mm; sepals >= fruit, narrowly triangular; corolla >> calyx, blue, with a symmetric yellow spot on lower lip, tube entire, 4–5 mm, cylindric, strongly 2-lipped, adaxial lobes 2, 1–2 mm, narrowly triangular, erect, abaxial lip with 2 low ridges, 3–8 mm, ± round, spreading; stamens fused, anthers ± 2 mm, tufted, 2 short anthers also with horn-like appendage ± 0.5 mm; ovary 2-chambered, stigma cup- or plate-like, papillate. Fruit: 5–10 mm, narrowly obconic to cylindric, valvate; top acute, ± pointed, or rounded. Seed: 1 mm, smooth except finely striate.
n=12. Moist, grassy roadsides, lake and pond edges; 1300–3500 m. High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province; to Wyoming, Arizona. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Porterella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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click for enlargement Porterella carnosula
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2007 Steve Matson

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Porterella carnosula Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.