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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial, in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, suberect, or erect, scales large, generally tan to brown, generally uniformly colored.
Leaf: generally tufted, 5–200+ cm, generally ± alike; stipe generally firm, base generally darker, with many vascular strands; blade 1–4- pinnate, often with scales, hair-like scales, hairs (except clear, needle-like hairs generally 0), or short-stalked glands on axes, between veins or not, veins free to netted; rachis, costa generally grooved adaxially.
Sporangia: sori round, along veins; indusia peltate or round- reniform; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear.
± 40–45 genera, > 1600 species: worldwide, especially tropics, wooded areas. [Schuettpelz & Pryer 2007 Taxon 56:1037–1050; Smith et al. 2006 Taxon 55:705–731] Based on molecular sequence data, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Woodsia removed to Woodsiaceae to preserve a monophyletic Dryopteridaceae. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Smith, A.R. et al. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55:705–731; Schuettpelz, E. and K.M. Pryer 2007. Fern phylogeny inferred from 400 leptosporangiate species and three plastid genes. Taxon 56: 1037–1050.]
Unabridged note: Current data (as reported by Schuettpelz & Pryer and in papers cited therein) suggest that Wooodsiaceae is paraphyletic (with respect to Aspeniaceae, Blechnaceae, and Thelypteridaceae), yet are insufficient to resolve the questions of circumscription (too few taxa, not enough genes sampled). Alternative classifications that would preserve monophyly include recognition of several additional, small families (e.g., Cystopteridaceae, Athyriaceae, and others not in CA, each comprising just a few genera) or lumping at least 4 currently recognized families, many of long-standing use and acceptance; a conservative and expedient course is taken for now (Smith et al. 2006), pending further work.
Key to Dryopteridaceae
Rhizome generally suberect to erect, often stout.Key to Polystichum
Leaf: stipe stout, firm, generally densely scaly, ×-section with many round vascular strands in an arc; blade 1–3-[> 3–] pinnate, proximal pinnae reduced or not, thin to leathery, scaly, veins generally free, rarely ± jointed; pinna bases often wider acroscopically; teeth, generally including bristle-like tips, < 4 mm [or teeth 0].
Sporangia: sori round; indusium peltate [0 or reniform], sinus 0.
± 175+ species: ± worldwide. (Greek: many rows, from rows of sori on type sp.)
Leaf: 10–50 cm; stipe 1/4–1/2 blade, base scales 1.5–2(3) mm wide, lanceolate to elliptic; blade narrow- lanceolate 1- to partly 2- pinnate; pinnae generally 1–3 cm, lance- oblong, proximal ± lanceolate, longest 1.5–3 cm.
Sporangia: indusium entire.
2n=164. Serpentine to acidic soils, generally full sun, rock crevices, boulder bases; 400–3200 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau, Desert Mountains (Surprise Canyon, Panamint Range);
Previous taxon: Polystichum munitum
Next taxon: Equisetaceae
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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