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Key to families | Table of families and genera
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Perennial herb, in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, suberect, or erect, scales large, generally tan to brown, generally uniformly colored. Leaf: generally tufted, 5–200+ cm, generally ± alike; stipe generally firm, base generally darker, with many vascular strands; blade 1–4-pinnate, often with scales, hair-like scales, hairs (except clear, needle-like hairs generally 0), or short-stalked glands on axes, between veins or not, veins free to netted; rachis, costa generally grooved adaxially. Sporangia: sori round, along veins; indusia peltate or round-reniform; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear.
± 40–45 genera, > 1600 species: worldwide, especially tropics, wooded areas. [Schuettpelz & Pryer 2007 Taxon 56:1037–1050; Smith et al. 2006 Taxon 55:705–731] Based on molecular sequence data, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Woodsia removed to Woodsiaceae to preserve a monophyletic Dryopteridaceae. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Smith, A.R. et al. 2006. A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55:705–731; Schuettpelz, E. and K.M. Pryer 2007. Fern phylogeny inferred from 400 leptosporangiate species and three plastid genes. Taxon 56: 1037–1050.]
Unabridged note: Current data (as reported by Schuettpelz & Pryer and in papers cited therein) suggest that Wooodsiaceae is paraphyletic (with respect to Aspeniaceae, Blechnaceae, and Thelypteridaceae), yet are insufficient to resolve the questions of circumscription (too few taxa, not enough genes sampled). Alternative classifications that would preserve monophyly include recognition of several additional, small families (e.g., Cystopteridaceae, Athyriaceae, and others not in California, each comprising just a few genera) or lumping at least 4 currently recognized families, many of long-standing use and acceptance; a conservative and expedient course is taken for now (Smith et al. 2006), pending further work.
Key to Dryopteridaceae
Rhizome generally suberect to erect, often stout. Leaf: stipe stout, firm, generally densely scaly, ×-section with many round vascular strands in an arc; blade 1–3-[> 3–]pinnate, proximal pinnae reduced or not, thin to leathery, scaly, veins generally free, rarely ± jointed; pinna bases often wider acroscopically; teeth, generally including bristle-like tips, < 4 mm [or teeth 0]. Sporangia: sori round; indusium peltate [0 or reniform], sinus 0.Key to Polystichum
± 175+ species: ± worldwide. (Greek: many rows, from rows of sori on type sp.)
Leaf: 40–100 cm; stipe < 1/2 blade, base scales 3–4 mm wide, lance-ovate; blade lanceolate, 1- to partly 2-pinnate; pinnae generally 4–7 cm. Sporangia: indusium ciliate.
2n=82,164. Woodland, streambanks, to rocky open slopes; < 1100 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada (3 sites), Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), San Bernardino Mountains (1 site); to British Columbia. Probably sterile hybrid between Polystichum munitum or Polystichum imbricans and Polystichum dudleyi. Chromosome doubling (2n=164) restores fertility, allows backcrossing to parents. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Polystichum
Next taxon: Polystichum dudleyi
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Polystichum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=39407, accessed on Mar 26 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Polystichum californicum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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