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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial, on plants, rocks, in rock crevices, or in soil, humus, or on dunes; rhizome short- to long-creeping, branched, glaucous to not, scaly.
Leaf: ± alike or of 2 kinds, fertile and sterile; stipe thin to thick, generally straw-colored or green to brown, base persistent on rhizome; blade generally simple to 1- pinnate, membranous to fleshy or leathery; veins free to generally fused, often netted.
Sporangia: sori round to elongate ( linear), generally 1 per areole, in 1–several rows on each side of segment midrib; indusium 0; spores elliptic, ± smooth to coarse-tubercled or -ridged, scar linear.
± 40 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many species cultivated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Rhizome long-creeping; scales lanceolate, generally ± brown, 1-colored or often with darker central area or midstripe.Key to Polypodium
Leaf: 0.2–10(20) dm, ± alike or fertile > sterile; stipe glabrous to scaly; blade 1- pinnate to generally deeply pinnately lobed (or simple, unlobed), hairy to not, glandular or not, scales on abaxial midrib near base generally lanceolate or lance- linear, generally ± brown; veins free to fused.
Sporangia: sori in 1 row on each side of segment midrib, generally raised, sometimes including sporangium-like structures, shriveled sporangia, or branched or unbranched glandular hairs; spores yellow.
± 40 species: generally New World, temperate, tropics, few boreal. (Latin: many feet, from persistent petiole bases) [Hildebrand et al. 2002 Amer Fern J 92:214–228] Identification complicated in CA by fact that 2 or more co-occurring species often hybridize (often indicated by malformed spores), especially in CCo (especially Point Reyes), NCo, where the sterile hybrids may outnumber the parental species, and because coastal ecotypes of several species often have thicker, more succulent blades than inland forms. Polypodium australe Fée except (dubiously reported from but not persisting on San Clemente Island).
Unabridged references: [Whitmore & Smith 1991 Madroño 38:233–248; Hildebrand et al. 2002 Amer Fern J 92:214–228]
Unabridged note: A specimen from San Clemente Island (Lloyd & Hohn 4420, UC) identified by several workers as Polypodium australe Fée, a European (Medit) sp., lacks rhizome (rhizome important for identification) and definitive provenance (specimen from cultivated plant that is no longer extant so original locality data not fully trustworthy), and so is here excluded. Lloyd and Hohn (Amer Fern J 59:56–60. 1969) explained its presence as a chance introduction of spores carried on hides of European grazing animals. Apparently, it has not persisted on San Clemente Island, if in fact it ever occurred there at all.
Rhizome 3–12 mm diam, conspicuously white- glaucous, taste bland; scales with darker midstripe, often partly deciduous in age.
Leaf: evergreen 1–several seasons; blade 6–18(50) cm, deltate to oblong-ovate, thick, leathery, firm, brittle, midrib adaxially glabrous, abaxially with deltate, dark brown, shiny scales near base, segments crenate, margins thickened, tips generally round or round- obtuse, veins ± often fused.
Sporangia: sori 2–6 mm, ovate to round, often ± merged, with short, branched, glandular hairs or not.
2n=74. Coast, generally in heavy fog-drip or salt-spray zones, on plants (especially Douglas fir, Eucalyptus), dunes, rocky cliffs, bluffs, mtn ridges, granitic or volcanic rocks, mossy logs, or in soil; < 600 m. North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, n Channel Islands;
Previous taxon: Polypodium hesperium
Next taxon: Pteridaceae
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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