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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Rhizome tuber-like, elongate. Leaf: cauline, alternate, linear to elliptic or lanceolate, gradually reduced upward, with 1 lengthwise fold. Inflorescence: generally spike; flower bracts leaf-like. Flower: perianth white to yellow-green or green; sepals ± equal, upper generally hood-like, lower free, generally spreading; lateral petals generally erect, lip spurred, pendent to upcurved; column ± erect. Fruit: ascending to erect.Key to Platanthera
± 85 species: temperate North America, Eurasia. (Greek: wide anther) [Sheviak & Jennings 2006 Rhodora 108:19–33] Identification often difficult due to intermediates, hybrids; additional species expected in California. Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl. not in California.
Unabridged references: [Colwell et al. 2007 Madroño 54:86–93]
Unabridged note: In California, > 1 sp. often occurs in a given area and blooms at ± the same time, yielding many hybrids and hybrid swarms, including some that have not been named, e.g., Platanthera dilatata × Platanthera tescamnis, as well as others that have, e.g., Platanthera ×estesii W.J. Schrenk (Platanthera dilatata × Platanthera stricta) and Platanthera ×lassenii W.J. Schrenk (Platanthera dilatata × Platanthera sparsiflora). Some purported hybrids, e.g., Platanthera ×correllii W.J. Schrenk and Platanthera ×media (Rydb.) Luer, now treated as a synonym of Platanthera huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl., do not occur in California.
Plant 25–55 cm. Leaf: 4–15 cm, 5–30 mm wide. Inflorescence: generally 15–40 cm, dense to ± open, lowest flowers generally not overlapping. Flower: perianth yellow-green to green; sepals 5–9 mm; lip 6–10 mm, linear to lance-linear, spur ± = lip, ± cylindric, ± curved, tip acute; column generally 2.5–4 mm.
2n=42. Full sun to partial shade, wet meadows, streambanks, seeps, conifer forest; 100–3400 m. Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, South Coast, Transverse Ranges, Modoc Plateau, Desert; to Oregon, Utah, New Mexico, Baja California. May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Platanthera dilatata var. leucostachys
Next taxon: Platanthera stricta
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Platanthera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38646, accessed on Nov 27 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Platanthera sparsiflora|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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