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PLANTAGINACEAE PLANTAIN FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae

PLANTAGO PLANTAIN

Thomas J. Rosatti

Annual to perennial herb, generally scapose. Stem: decumbent to erect. Leaf: generally basal, veins generally ± parallel. Inflorescence: spike, generally dense; flowers few to many, cleistogamous or opening (both). Flower: generally bisexual; calyx deeply 4-lobed, lobes generally overlapped, persistent, margin generally scarious; corolla radial or bilateral, salverform or cylindric, scarious, persistent in fruit, colorless except for lobe midribs or not, lobes 4, spreading to erect; stamens generally 4; ovules several per chamber, stigma long, hairy. Fruit: circumscissile ± at or proximal to middle. Seed: 2–many, gelatinous when wetted.
± 250 species: worldwide, especially temperate; some weedy, some (especially Plantago afra L., psyllium) cultivated for laxative. (Latin: sole of foot) [Meyers & Liston 2008 Int J Plant Sci 169:954–962] Plantago sempervirens Crantz, Plantago heterophylla Nutt., reported but not documented, possibly naturalized in California.
Unabridged note: 2 species reported but not documented for California: Plantago sempervirens Crantz, native to southern Europe, Turkey, differs from Plantago arenaria in, e.g., habit (dwarf shrub vs annual), corolla tube (4–5 vs 3.5–4 mm), fruit (4–5 vs ± 2 mm); Plantago heterophylla Nutt., native to southeastern North America, differs from Plantago elongata in, e.g., seed number, size [10–25(30), 0.5–0.8 mm vs (3)4–9(12), 1.5–2.5 mm], corolla lobe orientation (generally spreading vs generally 1 erect, 3 spreading or reflexed).

Key to Plantago

P. eriopoda Torr.
NATIVE
Perennial herb, caudex stout, taproots 1–2; hairs generally 0 except peduncle. Leaf: 5–25 cm, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic-ovate, tapered to wide petiole, minute-dentate or generally ± wavy. Inflorescence: generally 1–6, 10–55 cm including peduncle; spike 8–18 cm, narrow-cylindric, arched in age, loose near base; bract not exserted, ± = calyx, appressed to calyx, wide-ovate. Flower: corolla lobes spreading, ± 1 mm, lance-ovate. Seed: 2–4, ± 2 mm.
2n=24. Moist, alkaline places; < 1000 m. Klamath Ranges, n Cascade Range; to Canada, central United States. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Plantago, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38560, accessed on Apr 24 2014

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.