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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, simple or compound, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

PLAGIOBOTHRYS POPCORNFLOWER
Annual (perennial herb), generally strigose to spreading-hairy; fibrous- to taprooted, staining red dye present or not. Stem: branched at base or above, < 5 dm. Leaf: simple, cauline or basal and cauline, 0.5–10 cm, generally smaller tipward, linear to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: raceme- or spike-like cymes, coiled in bud, generally elongate in fruit; bracts 0–many. Flower: calyx lobes fused below middle, 2–10 mm in fruit; corolla rotate to funnel-shaped or cylindric, white or white with yellow area, tube generally ± yellow inside, limb 1–12 mm diam, appendages prominent to minute, white to yellow. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ± ovate (triangular to ± lanceolate), rarely on narrow stalk or short peg, variously roughened, abaxially generally with central ridge, lateral ridges, cross-ribs, generally tubercled, occasionally prickly or bristly; adaxially keeled above attachment scar, scar on side generally near middle to base, sometimes on bottom or oblique (on angle between side and bottom), generally raised.
± 65 species: temperate western North America, western South America, northeastern Asia, Australia. (Greek: sideways pit, from position of nutlet attachment scar) Nutlet characters in key generally best for 3 nutlets farthest from stem; yellow on corolla changes to white after pollination.
Unabridged references: [Horn 2000 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ Munich; Johnston 1932 Contr Arnold Arboretum 3:1–102]
Unabridged note: Fully mature nutlets needed for identification; in many species nutlet closest to stem often more firmly attached, larger, differently textured, and with completely different attachment scar than other 3; nutlet characters used in key focus on 3 more loosely attached nutlets. Intergradation common in some species groups; reticulate speciation in genus; sect. Allocarya often treated as separate genus; many species need study. Corolla size can diminish markedly during flower period. Yellow corolla appendages and, if present, contrasting yellow corolla centers, change to white after successful pollination.

Key to Plagiobothrys

P. shastensis A. Gray SHASTA POPCORNFLOWER
NATIVE
Annual, occasionally red, staining on stem, lower leaves, straight-hairy. Stem: erect, 1–few, 0.5–3 dm. Leaf: basal in rosette, 1–3 cm; cauline few, alternate. Inflorescence: ± not coiled toward tip, not elongating in fruit, bracts ± throughout; flowers generally < 10 per branch, generally paired. Flower: calyx 5–7 mm; corolla limb 1–3 mm diam. Fruit: nutlet 2–3 mm, cross-shaped, gray to tan, strongly arched, shiny; abaxial cross-ribs wide, generally papillate, interspaces narrow, groove-like; scar near middle.
Uncommon. Dry slopes, flats, grassland, woodland; < 800 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges; southwestern Oregon. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Reddish plants of Plagiobothrys shastensis, Plagiobothrys tenellus separable by fruit from other red taxa, such as Plagiobothrys verrucosus (see key).

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Plagiobothrys, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38530, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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Bioregions in which Plagiobothrys shastensis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.