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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

PLAGIOBOTHRYS POPCORNFLOWER
Annual (perennial herb), generally strigose to spreading-hairy; fibrous- to taprooted, staining red dye present or not. Stem: branched at base or above, < 5 dm. Leaf: cauline or basal and cauline, 0.5–10 cm, generally smaller tipward, linear to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: raceme- or spike-like cymes, coiled in bud, generally elongate in fruit; bracts 0–many. Flower: calyx lobes fused below middle, 2–10 mm in fruit; corolla rotate to funnel-shaped or cylindric, white or white with yellow area, tube generally ± yellow inside, limb 1–12 mm diam, appendages prominent to minute, white to yellow. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, ± ovate (triangular to ± lanceolate), rarely on narrow stalk or short peg, variously roughened, abaxially generally with central ridge, lateral ridges, cross-ribs, generally tubercled, occasionally prickly or bristly; adaxially keeled above attachment scar, scar on side generally near middle to base, sometimes on bottom or oblique (on angle between side and bottom), generally raised.
± 65 species: temperate western North America, western South America, northeastern Asia, Australia. (Greek: sideways pit, from position of nutlet attachment scar) Nutlet characters in key generally best for 3 nutlets farthest from stem; yellow on corolla changes to white after pollination.
Unabridged references: [Horn 2000 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ Munich; Johnston 1932 Contr Arnold Arboretum 3:1–102]
Unabridged note: Fully mature nutlets needed for identification; in many species nutlet closest to stem often more firmly attached, larger, differently textured, and with completely different attachment scar than other 3; nutlet characters used in key focus on 3 more loosely attached nutlets. Intergradation common in some species groups; reticulate speciation in genus; sect. Allocarya often treated as separate genus; many species need study. Corolla size can diminish markedly during flower period. Yellow corolla appendages and, if present, contrasting yellow corolla centers, change to white after successful pollination.

Key to Plagiobothrys

P. cusickii (Greene) I.M. Johnst. CUSICK'S POPCORNFLOWER
NATIVE
Annual, ± strigose. Stem: erect to occasionally prostrate, 0.5–3+ dm, ± branched above base. Leaf: cauline, lower 3–10 cm. Inflorescence: bracts below middle to throughout. Flower: calyx 1.5–4 mm, strigose; corolla limb 1–2 mm diam. Fruit: nutlet 1–1.6 mm, ± flat, ovate, asymmetric, shiny; abaxial ridge short, near tip, lateral ridges obscure, cross-ribs ± evenly spaced, rounded, interspaces ± tubercled (bristled or scabrous); adaxial ridge beyond middle, ± folded to 1 side below; scar near base, occasionally oblique, generally hollow, ± oblong, with thin, ± incurved margins, sunken.
Wet, muddy areas, flats in sagebrush scrub, conifer forest; (60)450–2100 m. s Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, sw Sacramento Valley, Great Basin Floristic Province; to eastern Washington, Idaho, Nevada. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Evidently much less common than Plagiobothrys cognatus (see also note there) in Modoc Plateau, northern High Sierra Nevada, and than Plagiobothrys hispidulus in High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada possibly due to more specialized habitat requirements. Collections western of the Sierran-Cascade, if verified, may indicate introductions there. Verified collections from Sacramento Valley, Inner North Coast Ranges need study.

Previous taxon: Plagiobothrys collinus var. ursinus
Next taxon: Plagiobothrys diffusus

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Plagiobothrys, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38523, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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Bioregions in which Plagiobothrys cusickii occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.