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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Plant 10–130 cm; tubers, 1–4 cm, generally ± round; stem bracts lance-linear to ovate. Leaf: at flower 0 or ± basal, not in rosette, 2–5, linear to widely oblanceolate. Inflorescence: spike or raceme, generally cylindric, flowers not in spiral; flower bract generally < flower. Flower: fragrance, when present, generally at night; perianth white to green; sepals generally 2–5 mm, 1–2 mm wide, 1-veined, upper pointed forward to erect, lower free, spreading to reflexed; lateral petals ± = sepals, spreading to erect, lip spurred, pointed forward, down (or upcurved); column < lip; ovary inferior, generally twisted 180°. Fruit: ascending to erect.Key to Piperia
10 species: North America. (Charles V. Piper, American botanist, 1867–1926) [Ackerman & Morgan 2002 FNANM 26:571–577] Some species difficult to separate.
Unabridged references: [Morgan & Ackerman 1990 Lindleyana 5: 205–211]
Plant (9)14–130 cm. Leaf: basal 8–30 cm, 10–65 mm wide. Inflorescence: 15–30 cm, 10–30 mm wide, open to dense. Flower: fragrance faint, harsh to honey-like; perianth green; upper sepal ± erect, lower ± reflexed; lateral petals ± sickle-shaped, generally erect, flat, 2 mm wide at base, 2–3 × as long, lip 2–5.5 mm, lance-deltate, reflexed, spur 6.5–18 mm, slender, generally curved, pointed down.
n=21. Generally dry sites, scrub, chaparral, mixed-evergreen or conifer forest; < 2200 m. California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, s Channel Islands); to British Columbia, Montana. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Piperia elegans subsp. elegans
Next taxon: Piperia leptopetala
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Piperia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38354, accessed on Mar 27 2015
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Piperia elongata|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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