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PINACEAE PINE FAMILY

J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted

Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]

Key to Pinaceae

PINUS PINE

J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette

Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2–5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not.
2n=24.
94 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: pine) Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10–30 cm; seed cone 8–15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in San Francisco Bay Area, northern Channel Islands.
Unabridged references: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]
Unabridged note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).

Key to Pinus

P. muricata D. Don BISHOP PINE
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 51 m, < 1.2 m wide; bark brown, ridges rough; mature crown variable, branches often large. Leaf: 2 per bundle, generally 5–15 cm, twisted or not, generally green; sheath persistent. Seed cone: generally whorled, 5–9.7 cm, ovoid, brown, weathering gray, generally closed, persistent many years, either ± spreading, symmetric, with scale tip knobs < 3 mm, prickled, or reflexed, asymmetric, with proximal, middle scale tip knobs < 15 mm, angled, prickled; stalk 0–2 cm.
Redwood forest, northern coastal conifer forest, closed-cone-pine forest, chaparral; < 300 m. North Coast, Central Coast, n San Francisco Bay Area, n Channel Islands; northern Baja California, Cedros Island. [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Pinus monticola
Next taxon: Pinus ponderosa

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pinus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38287, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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click for enlargement Pinus muricata
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Charles Webber 1998 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pinus muricata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.