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Barry A. Rice

Annual, perennial herb, carnivorous, of moist or aquatic habitats. Stem: caudex or stolon, then often with thread-like branches. Leaf: simple, in rosette, or simple or dissected, emerging from caudex or stolon, with minute, carnivorous bladders ± throughout. Inflorescence: raceme or 1-flowered, scapose. Flower: bisexual; calyx lips 2[4], upper 3-lobed, lower 2-lobed, or lips unlobed; corolla 2-lipped, spurred at base, lower lip flat or arched upward, blocking throat or not; stamens 2, epipetalous; ovary superior, chamber 1, placenta generally free-central; stigma unequally 2-lobed, ± sessile. Fruit: capsule, round, 2-valved, circumscissile, or irregularly dehiscent. Seed: generally many, small.
3 genera, 330 species: worldwide, especially tropics. [Rice 2006 Growing Carnivorous Plants. Timber Press] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Lentibulariaceae

Perennial herb [(annual)] of moist habitats; carnivorous by sticky or slimy leaves. Stem: caudex. Leaf: simple, in rosette, fleshy; margins entire, incurving over trapped prey or not; adaxially with stalked glands that capture small organisms, sessile glands that digest them. Inflorescence: 1-flowered [rarely 2-flowered]; scape succulent, glandular, bracts 0. Flower: calyx upper lip 3-lobed, lower lip 2-lobed; corolla lower lip often hairy, generally not blocking throat. Fruit: 2-valved.
± 92 species: America, Europe, Mediterranean. (Latin: ± fat, from leaf surface)

P. macroceras Link HORNED BUTTERWORT
Leaf: 2–5 cm, elliptic to ovate, green to dark brown. Inflorescence: 1–5 per rosette, 1–2 dm. Flower: corolla (including spur) 13–21 mm, 5-lobed, (pale) blue-violet, center of lower lip white; lobes obovate, throat hairy, spur 6–9 mm.
2n=64. Moist slopes, cliffs, serpentine banks; < 1830 m. n Klamath Ranges (Del Norte, Siskiyou cos.); Oregon to Alaska, Russia; also Japan. [Pinguicula macroceras subsp. macroceras; Pinguicula macroceras subsp. nortensis J. Steiger & J.H. Rondeau; Pinguicula vulgaris L. subsp. macroceras (Link) Calder & Roy L. Taylor] May not be distinct from Pinguicula vulgaris L. (also 2n=64); plants overwinter as dense bud, proliferate by detachment of basal daughter buds (gemmae). Apr–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged distribution outside California: southwestern Oregon; also northern Oregon to Alaska, Russia; also Japan.
Unabridged note: May not be distinct from Pinguicula vulgaris L. (also 2n=64); California, southwestern Oregon plants with calyx lobe tips ± blunt, corolla lobes non-overlapping, sometimes treated elsewhere as Pinguicula macroceras subsp. nortensis J. Steiger & J.H. Rondeau (which might not have been effectively published); plants overwinter as dense bud, proliferate by detachment of basal daughter buds (gemmae).

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pinguicula, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pinguicula macroceras Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.