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SOLANACEAE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael H. Nee

Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2–5-chambered.
75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC. [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum. Koeltz Scientific Books] Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum: The Genera of Solanaceae Illustrated, Arranged According to a New System by A.T. Hunziker. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany]

Key to Solanaceae

PHYSALIS GROUND-CHERRY
Annual from taproot or perennial herb from rhizome; hairs branched or not, glandular or not. Leaf: ± opposite or not, entire to pinnate-lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1–few per axil, pedicelled. Flower: generally nodding; calyx 5-lobed, enlarged and persistent, bladder-like in fruit; corolla ± rotate to shallowly bell-shaped, generally ± yellow, often dark-spotted adaxially; stamens 5, attached to hairy band in tube, anthers free, generally < filaments, opening by slits; style generally straight. Fruit: berry, fleshy [dry]. Seed: many, 2–2.5 mm, ± spheric to reniform.
± 85 species: America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia. (Greek: bladder, from calyx in fruit) Unripe fruit often TOXIC. Needs study in western United States. Some species cultivated for edible or ornamental fruit.
Unabridged references: [Sullivan 1985 Syst Bot 10:426–444]

Key to Physalis

P. longifolia Nutt.
WAIF
Perennial herb 2–6 dm; hairs simple, few, appressed. Leaf: 4–7 cm, lanceolate to ± elliptic, petioled, generally entire (irregular-toothed). Inflorescence: pedicel 6–15 mm, in fruit < 20 mm. Flower: calyx 9–10 mm, in fruit 25–35 mm, 10-veined; corolla 15–20 mm wide, bell-shaped, yellow with purple spots or veins at base; anthers 3–4 mm, generally with some blue or purple.
n=12. Disturbed places, fields; < 1000 m. n High Cascade Range (Shasta Valley); native to central and eastern United States. Aug–Oct {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Physalis philadelphica

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Physalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=38070, accessed on Oct 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Physalis longifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.