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Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual, fleshy. Stem: prostrate or reclined, many-branched, brittle; angles ± glabrous, bristly, or generally with hooked prickles. Leaf: cauline, lower opposite, upper alternate; petioles generally winged, clasping; blade pinnate-lobed, uppermost reduced, short-petioled, generally deltate, 3-lobed, with small, sharp bristles both surfaces. Inflorescence: terminal, axillary, opposite leaves, or flowers 1; pedicels present. Flower: calyx lobes hairy, bristly-ciliate; corolla rotate, lobes ± = tube, generally hairy; stamens included, equal, equally attached; ovary bristly-hairy, chamber appearing 1, style 1, 2-lobed in distal 1/2. Fruit: capsule, spheric, stout-bristly-hairy. Seed: 1–8, spheric, brown, pitted or honeycombed.Key to Pholistoma
3 species: California, Arizona, Baja California. (Greek: scale mouth)
Unabridged references: [Constance 1939 Bull Torrey Bot Club 66:341–352]
Stem: 2–6 dm. Leaf: petiole narrow-winged, clasping; lower leaves 3–10 cm, 2–8 cm wide, blade ovate to ± deltate, base cordate or truncate, tip obtuse, lobes 5–9, obtuse or acute, entire or 3–5-toothed. Inflorescence: flowers generally 2–6 generally in cymes; pedicel 5–30 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 2–4 mm, ± lanceolate, sinus appendages < 2 mm; corolla 4–10 mm, 5–15 mm wide, white to blue; style 1–3 mm. Fruit: 5–8 mm wide, enclosed in calyx. Seed: 4–8.
n=9. Moist shaded, areas, hillsides, ravines, ocean bluffs, coastal scrub; < 500 m. South Coast, Channel Islands, Peninsular Ranges; Baja California. Feb–May [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Pholistoma membranaceum
Next taxon: Plagiobothrys
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pholistoma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37887, accessed on Aug 22 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pholistoma racemosum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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