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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
Key to Asteraceae
Annual 2–6(13) dm. Stem: generally ascending to erect, often glandular, generally ± purple or brown. Leaf: basal in rosette or opposite, cauline generally alternate, sessile, generally linear to lanceolate, or oblanceolate, minutely dentate to (2-)pinnately lobed, glabrous or hairy, distal often stalked-glandular. Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, 1 or in ± open clusters; involucre ± hemispheric to bell-shaped, obconic, or urn-shaped, 2–15+ mm diam; phyllaries 1 per ray flower, in 1(2) series, lanceolate to oblanceolate, generally folded completely around ray ovary, falling with fruit, generally ± hairy or scabrous, often glandular; receptacle flat to slightly convex, minutely bristly, paleae free, generally in 1 series between ray and disk flowers, or subtending ± each disk flower, phyllary-like, more scarious. Ray flower: (0)3–27; corolla white, often aging ± pink, to yellow or proximally yellow and distally pale yellow or ± white. Disk flower: 5–125; corolla yellow, puberulent, sometimes glandular, tube < throat, lobes deltate; anthers ± dark purple or yellow to ± brown, tips narrowly triangular or ± lanceolate to ovate; style branches awl-shaped, bristly. Fruit: generally 2–5 mm, generally club-shaped, black; ray fruit compressed front-to-back, ± curved, beakless, glabrous or sparsely hairy, pappus 0; disk fruit ± straight, generally ± hairy, pappus 0 or of 1–32 awns, scales, or bristles.Key to Layia
14 species: western North America. (George T. Lay, early 19th century English plant collector) [Baldwin et al. 2006 FNANM 21:262–269] Generally self-sterile (except Layia carnosa, Layia hieracioides, sometimes Layia chrysanthemoides).
Unabridged disk flower: anther bases obtuse to sagittate.
Unabridged references: [Baldwin 2006 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 93:64–93]
Plant 5–130 cm, glandular, sweetly or pungently scented. Stem: purple-streaked, strictly erect. Leaf: < 15 cm, elliptic or linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, sessile to ± clasping, proximal toothed or ± irregularly lobed. Inflorescence: peduncle < 6 cm; involucre 4–9+ mm diam, ± ellipsoid to ± obconic; phyllaries 4–9 mm, tip < folded base, bases sometimes not enfolding ray fruits. Ray flower: 6–16; ray 1–4 mm, yellow. Disk flower: 9–80; corolla 2.5–4.5 mm; anthers ± dark purple. Fruit: ray fruit glabrous; disk pappus of 10–16 bristles or bristle-like scales, 2–4 mm, ± equal, ± white to red-brown, plumose proximally, scabrous distally, not adaxially woolly.
2n=16,32. Open, semi-shady, or disturbed sites, in light soil; < 1200 m. Central Western California, w Western Transverse Ranges. Sometimes hybridizes with Layia glandulosa in southern Central Coast. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Layia heterotricha
Next taxon: Layia jonesii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Layia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=3751, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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