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SOLANACEAE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael H. Nee

Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2–5-chambered.
75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC. [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum. Koeltz Scientific Books] Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum: The Genera of Solanaceae Illustrated, Arranged According to a New System by A.T. Hunziker. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany]

Key to Solanaceae

PETUNIA
Annual, perennial herb, sticky-glandular. Stem: main branches from base, with ± long internodes. Leaf: ± opposite near flowers, entire. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils of leaves or leaf-like bracts. Flower: calyx divided ± to base, lobes ± leaf-like, especially in fruit; corolla funnel-shaped, 5-lobed; stamens ± equal or 1 short, 2 medium, 2 long. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute, angled.
± 30 species: generally South America; some cultivated for ornamental, sometimes waifs. (Petun, Native American word for tobacco) Petunia axillaris (Lam.) Britton et al., Petunia violacea Lindl. may be naturalized in California.
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Petunia axillaris (Lam.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. Evidence from chloroplast DNA, morphology, and ecology was used by Fregonezi et al. [Taxon 61:120–130. 2012] to support segregation of Calibrachoa from Petunia, as well as recognition of Calibrachoa parviflora (Juss.) D'Arcy, which was said to occur "in North America and Europe, probably as a result of introduction from South America and subsequent naturalization".

P. parviflora Juss.
NATIVE
Stem: prostrate to decumbent, < 4 dm, rooting at nodes; axillary branches short, leafy. Leaf: 5–14 mm, ± oblanceolate, fleshy, ± sessile. Flower: calyx lobes 3–6 mm, < 11 mm in fruit, elliptic to narrowly obovate; corolla 4–6 mm, ± purple, tube ± white. Fruit: 2–3 mm. Seed: pale brown.
Open washes, dry streambeds; < 1300 m. Central Western California, South Coast, n Channel Islands (Santa Rosa Island), Peninsular Ranges, Sonoran Desert; to southwestern Utah, southeastern United States, Mexico; also South America; waif elsewhere in United States. [Calibrachoa parviflora (Juss.) D'Arcy] Widely treated in Calibrachoa, which is the sister group of Petunia [Kulcheski et al. 2006 Genetica 126:3–14]; treated in Calibrachoa also by Fregonezi et al. [Taxon 61:120–130. 2012], who regarded it as probably native to South America, naturalized in North America, Europe. Apr–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Petunia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37378, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Petunia parviflora Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.