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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens 3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Polygonaceae
Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or stoloned. Stem: prostrate to erect, ribbed or ± so or not, glabrous or hairy, generally with adventitious roots. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled or not; ocrea papery, rarely ± leaf-like, opaque, persistent or disintegrating, glabrous to variously hairy; blade lanceolate or ovate to hastate or sagittate, entire. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, generally spike-like; flowers 1–14; peduncle present, pedicels present [or 0]. Flower: bisexual or functionally ± unisexual, base not stalk-like; perianth not or ± enlarging, bell-shaped (urn-shaped, rotate), glabrous, gland-dotted or not, green-white, white, pink, or red; perianth parts 4–5, fused 1/4–2/3, outer 2 > inner 2 or 3; stamens 5–8, filaments free, cylindric, thread-like, glabrous, outer fused to perianth tube or not, anthers elliptic to ovate, yellow, pink, or red; styles 2–3, erect to reflexed, free or fused, stigmas head-like. Fruit: included or exserted, brown or dark-brown to black, not winged, discoid, lens-shaped, or 3-angled. Seed: embryo curved.Key to Persicaria
± 100 species: ± worldwide. (Latin: peach, pertaining to; from resemblance of leaves of some species to those of peach)
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: persica, peach, aria, pertaining to; from resemblance of leaves of some species to those of peach)
Annual, perennial herb, generally rhizomed. Stem: ascending to erect, 15–100 cm, glabrous, gland-dotted. Leaf: ocrea (5)9–18 mm, cylindric, brown, margins truncate, ciliate, bristles 2–11 mm, surface glabrous or strigose, gland-dotted; petiole 0–1 cm; blade 5–10(15) cm, 0.6–2.4 cm wide, lanceolate to lance-ovate or sub-diamond-shaped, glabrous or scabrous on midveins, gland-dotted, adaxial dark blotch 0, base tapered or wedge-shaped, tip acute to acuminate. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, generally erect, interrupted, 50–200 mm, 4–8 mm wide; peduncle 30–60 mm, glabrous, gland-dotted; bractlets generally not overlapped; pedicels ascending, 1–4 mm; flowers 2–6. Flower: perianth 3–3.5 mm, bell-shaped, ± enlarging, gland-dotted, generally ± green to white, lobes 5, margins generally white, veins prominent or not, not anchor-shaped, tips obtuse to rounded; stamens 6–8, included, anthers pink or red; styles 2–3, fused basally. Fruit: included or exserted, 2–3.2 mm, 1.5–2.2 mm wide, generally 3-angled (lens-shaped), brown-black, shiny, smooth.
2n=44. Shallow water, shores, marshes, floodplain forest; < 1500 m. California; North America to South America. [Polygonum punctatum Elliott] Highly variable but named varieties not distinct. Confused with Persicaria hydropiper. Jun–Nov [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Persicaria pensylvanica
Next taxon: Persicaria wallichii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Persicaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37303, accessed on Apr 16 2014
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