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POLYGONACEAE BUCKWHEAT FAMILY

Mihai Costea & James L. Reveal, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera revised in consultation with James L. Reveal, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Polygonaceae

PERSICARIA SMARTWEED

Mihai Costea

Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or stoloned. Stem: prostrate to erect, ribbed or ± so or not, glabrous or hairy, generally with adventitious roots. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled or not; ocrea papery, rarely ± leaf-like, opaque, persistent or disintegrating, glabrous to variously hairy; blade lanceolate or ovate to hastate or sagittate, entire. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, generally spike-like; flowers 1–14; peduncle present, pedicels present [or 0]. Flower: bisexual or functionally ± unisexual, base not stalk-like; perianth not or ± enlarging, bell-shaped (urn-shaped, rotate), glabrous, gland-dotted or not, green-white, white, pink, or red; perianth parts 4–5, fused 1/4–2/3, outer 2 > inner 2 or 3; stamens 5–8, filaments free, cylindric, thread-like, glabrous, outer fused to perianth tube or not, anthers elliptic to ovate, yellow, pink, or red; styles 2–3, erect to reflexed, free or fused, stigmas head-like. Fruit: included or exserted, brown or dark-brown to black, not winged, discoid, lens-shaped, or 3-angled. Seed: embryo curved.
± 100 species: ± worldwide. (Latin: peach, pertaining to; from resemblance of leaves of some species to those of peach)
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: persica, peach, aria, pertaining to; from resemblance of leaves of some species to those of peach)

Key to Persicaria

P. hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small FALSE WATERPEPPER
NATIVE
Perennial herb, rhizomed. Stem: decumbent to ascending, 15–100 cm, glabrous or obscurely strigose distally. Leaf: ocrea 5–20 mm, cylindric, brown, margins truncate, ciliate, bristles (2)4–10 mm, surface glabrous or strigose, not gland-dotted; petiole 0.2–2 cm; blade 5–25 cm, 0.4–3.7 cm wide, linear- to widely lanceolate, glabrous or appressed-hairy on midveins, also on surfaces or not, generally abaxially gland-dotted, adaxial dark blotch 0, base tapered or acute, tip acuminate. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, erect, generally uninterrupted, 30–80 mm, 2–5 mm wide; peduncle 10–30 mm, glabrous or strigose; bractlets overlapped distally, often not proximally; pedicels ascending, 1–1.5 mm; flowers 2–6. Flower: perianth (1.5) 2.5–4 mm, bell-shaped, ± enlarging, not gland-dotted, pink or white-± green, lobes 5, obovate, veins prominent or not, not anchor-shaped, tips obtuse to rounded; stamens 8, included or exserted, anthers pink or red; styles 3, fused nearly 1/2. Fruit: included or exserted, 1.5–3 mm, 1–2.3 mm wide, 3-angled, brown to black, shiny, smooth.
2n=40. Wet banks, shallow water, marshes, moist prairies; < 1500 m. California Floristic Province, Sonoran Desert; to eastern North America, Mexico. [Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.] Confused with Persicaria maculosa (see key). Jun–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Persicaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37287, accessed on Apr 24 2014

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Bioregions in which Persicaria hydropiperoides occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.