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POLYGONACEAE BUCKWHEAT FAMILY

Mihai Costea & James L. Reveal, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera revised in consultation with James L. Reveal, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Polygonaceae

PERSICARIA SMARTWEED

Mihai Costea

Annual, perennial herb, rhizomed or stoloned. Stem: prostrate to erect, ribbed or ± so or not, glabrous or hairy, generally with adventitious roots. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled or not; ocrea papery, rarely ± leaf-like, opaque, persistent or disintegrating, glabrous to variously hairy; blade lanceolate or ovate to hastate or sagittate, entire. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, generally spike-like; flowers 1–14; peduncle present, pedicels present [or 0]. Flower: bisexual or functionally ± unisexual, base not stalk-like; perianth not or ± enlarging, bell-shaped (urn-shaped, rotate), glabrous, gland-dotted or not, green-white, white, pink, or red; perianth parts 4–5, fused 1/4–2/3, outer 2 > inner 2 or 3; stamens 5–8, filaments free, cylindric, thread-like, glabrous, outer fused to perianth tube or not, anthers elliptic to ovate, yellow, pink, or red; styles 2–3, erect to reflexed, free or fused, stigmas head-like. Fruit: included or exserted, brown or dark-brown to black, not winged, discoid, lens-shaped, or 3-angled. Seed: embryo curved.
± 100 species: ± worldwide. (Latin: peach, pertaining to; from resemblance of leaves of some species to those of peach)
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: persica, peach, aria, pertaining to; from resemblance of leaves of some species to those of peach)

Key to Persicaria

P. hydropiper (L.) Delarbre WATERPEPPER
NATURALIZED
Annual, rhizomes, stolons 0. Stem: ascending to erect, 20–60(100) cm, gland-dotted. Leaf: ocrea 8–15 mm, brown, cylindric or funnel-shaped, margins truncate, ciliate, bristles 1–4 mm, surface glabrous or strigose, generally gland-dotted; petiole 0–0.8 cm; blade (1.5)4–10(15) cm, 0.4–2.5 cm wide, lanceolate to narrowly diamond-shaped, glabrous or scabrous on midveins, ± gland-dotted, adaxial dark blotch 0, base wedge-shaped, tip acute to acuminate. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, erect or nodding, interrupted or not distally, 30–180 mm, 5–9 mm wide; peduncle (0)10–50 mm, glabrous, gland-dotted; bractlets not overlapped; pedicels ascending, 1–3 mm; flowers 1–3(5). Flower: perianth 2–3.5 mm, ± bell-shaped, gland-dotted, green-white or pink, lobes 4–5, obovate, margins ± red, veins ± prominent, not anchor-shaped, tips obtuse to rounded; stamens 6–8, included, anthers pink or red; styles 2–3, fused basally. Fruit: included or exserted, 2–3 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide, lens-shaped or 3-angled, brown-black, dull, minutely rough.
2n=20. Shores of lakes, ponds, riverbanks, forested wetlands, pastures, disturbed ground; < 1500 m. n&c California Floristic Province; to northern and eastern North America, also Asia, Africa, Australia; native to Europe. [Polygonum hydropiper L.] May–Dec [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Persicaria capitata
Next taxon: Persicaria hydropiperoides

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Persicaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=37286, accessed on Jul 29 2014

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Bioregions in which Persicaria hydropiper occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.