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David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae


Bruce G. Baldwin

Annual 1–10(15) dm. Stem: ± erect. Leaf: mostly cauline, proximal opposite, most alternate, ± sessile; blade narrowly elliptic to linear or proximal oblanceolate to spoon-shaped, entire or proximal sometimes toothed, coarse-, soft-, or silky-hairy or strigose, all or distal sometimes also stalked-glandular. Inflorescence: heads radiate, in tight groups or ± panicle-like clusters; involucre 3–6+ mm diam, ± hemispheric or obovoid to obconic, sometimes subtended by calyx-like set of bracts; phyllaries 5 in 1 series, linear to oblanceolate, each wholly enveloping a subtended ray ovary, spreading and falling with fruit, on angles coarsely long-straight-hairy to minutely coarse-hairy or scabrous; receptacle flat to convex, densely bristly; paleae in ring between ray and disk flowers, fused or free, scarious. Ray flower: 5; corolla yellow, ray fan-shaped, deeply lobed, abaxially often red- to purple-veined. Disk flower: 6, staminate; corolla yellow, tube < throat, lobes deltate; anthers ± dark purple, tips triangular-ovate to ± rounded; style glabrous proximal to undivided, awl-shaped, short-hairy tip. Fruit: ray fruit ± compressed front-to-back, glabrous, black, tip beakless, pappus 0; disk fruit 0, pappus 0.
5 species: California, to Washington, Montana, Nevada. (Greek: hare leaf, for soft-hairy leaves) [Baldwin 2013 Madroño 60:249–254] Easily overlooked; leaves wither early, heads close at mid-day. Lagophylla diabolensis newly described, added as native.
Unabridged references: [Thompson 1983 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of California, Davis; Baldwin & Strother 2006 FNANM 21:260–261]

Key to Lagophylla

L. ramosissima Nutt.
Plant 1–10(15) dm; self-compatible. Stem: glandless; main axis obvious or not (± zigzag). Leaf: ± gray, most glandless, distal stalked-glandular abaxially, glands generally ± white or yellow, sometimes golden-brown. Inflorescence: heads tightly grouped or in open, panicle-like clusters; calyx-like bracts subtending involucre 2–5; involucre obconic to obovoid; phyllaries 4–7 mm, on angles coarsely long-spreading-hairy, hairs ± widely spreading to curved toward phyllary tip, 0.5–1+ mm. Ray flower: ray 3–6 mm. Fruit: dull to ± shiny, weakly striate.
2n=14. Grassland, openings in scrub, woodland, forest; < 1800 m. California Floristic Province (except North Coast, Channel Islands, San Jacinto Mountains), Modoc Plateau; to Washington, Montana, Nevada. [Lagophylla ramosissima subsp. congesta (Greene) D.D. Keck] Apr–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Apr 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Lagophylla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Apr 1 2015

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click for enlargement Lagophylla ramosissima
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1996 Doreen L. Smith

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Lagophylla ramosissima Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.