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Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, 2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Plantaginaceae
Perennial herb to shrub. Leaf: generally opposite, entire to toothed; distal sessile. Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, cyme, or flowers in whorls; bracts generally small. Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; stamens 4, filament bases glabrous, attached to corolla at different levels, anther sacs 2, valves generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy adaxially; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma unlobed. Fruit: septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip. Seed: generally many, irregularly angled.Key to Penstemon
250 species: North America, especially western United States. (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode) [Wolfe et al. 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1699–1713] Largest genus of flower plants endemic to North America. Penstemon subglaber, Penstemon strictus may persist in High Sierra Nevada, from commercial wildflower seed mixes or plantings; both native to Rocky Mountains.
Unabridged references: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]
Perennial herb 25–65 cm, woody-branched proximally; herbage glabrous. Leaf: generally cauline; distal leaves 40–100 mm, linear to narrowly lanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: glandular (especially pedicels). Flower: calyx 4–6 mm, lobes lanceolate; corolla 15–20 mm, red- to blue-purple, floor glabrous to shaggy-hairy; anther sacs 1–1.3 mm, dehiscing at proximal end to 1/2 their length, inner margins glabrous; staminode yellow-hairy.
2n=16. Sagebrush scrub, juniper woodland, yellow-pine to subalpine forests; 900–2800 m. Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; Oregon, Nevada. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Penstemon fruticiformis var. fruticiformis
Next taxon: Penstemon grinnellii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 11 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Penstemon, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36957, accessed on Mar 11 2014
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