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BORAGINACEAE BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY

Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

PECTOCARYA PECTOCARYA, COMBSEED
Annual. Stem: 2–40 cm, strigose, breaking at nodes or not. Leaf: generally alternate, generally 0.5–4 cm, ± linear, strigose to sharp-bristled. Inflorescence: bracted or not; pedicel in fruit generally free from nutlets, generally recurved. Flower: basal cleistogamous flowers generally 0; calyx generally < fruit, lobes free, not arched over 1 nutlet, with hooked or straight prickles, in fruit ± equal or, if unequal, upper 2 > others; corolla funnel-shaped, white, limb 0.5–2.5 mm diam, appendages white or yellow; style attached to receptacle, unbranched, generally persistent, stigma 1, head-like. Fruit: nutlets generally 4, generally paired, often dissimilar in shape, ornamentation, margin width, spreading, 1–4.5 mm, generally compressed, marginal prickles straight or hooked at tip.
15 species: to British Columbia, Wyoming, Texas, northwestern Mexico; South America. (Greek: comb nut, from bristly to dentate nutlet margins of some species) Nutlets of basal, cleistogamous flowers (present in Pectocarya heterocarpa, Pectocarya peninsularis) unusual, not to be used in key.
Unabridged references: [Veno 1979 Ph.D. Dissertation Univ of California, Los Angeles]
Unabridged note: Flowers generally of 1 kind with observable white corolla occurring on the cauline inflorescence sections, except for Pectocarya heterocarpa, Pectocarya peninsularis, which also produce cleistogamous flowers, without an observable corolla, that occur at stem bases and produce nutlet shapes not represented in the diagnostic key.

Key to Pectocarya

P. penicillata (Hook. & Arn.) A. DC. NORTHERN PECTOCARYA
NATIVE
Stem: prostrate to decumbent, 2–25 cm. Inflorescence: pedicel in fruit ascending, 1.3–2.5 mm. Fruit: nutlets 1.6–2.4 mm, oblanceolate, straight, ± equal in width, bristled at tip to above ± middle; margins wavy, erect to incurved, not or ± dentate.
2n=24. Disturbed sites, roadsides; 90–2100 m. California Floristic Province (except North Coast, Central Coast), Modoc Plateau (except Warner Mountains), White and Inyo Mountains, Desert; to British Columbia, western Wyoming, Arizona, northern Baja California. Desert plants with margins of 2 nutlets narrower than other 2, bristles from nutlet base to tip, 2n=48, may be distinct tetraploid, as yet undescribed hybrid sp.; see Cronquist (1984) Intermountain Flora, Vol 4, for description, illustration. Feb–May [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Pectocarya linearis subsp. ferocula
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pectocarya, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36530, accessed on Dec 19 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pectocarya penicillata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.