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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

PASPALUM

Charles Allen

Perennial herb (in California), tufted, rhizomatous, or stoloniferous. Stem: decumbent to erect; internode solid to hollow. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath glabrous or hairy; ligule membranous. Inflorescence: racemes 1 to many, branches digitate or raceme-like, spreading to erect. Spikelet: 2-flowered (lower floret sterile, upper floret fertile), dorsally compressed, falling as one unit, fertile lemma convex, positioned adaxially, subsessile to short-pedicelled, 1 or 2, in 2 rows along 1 side of rachis; lower glume 0, rarely present and then not on every spikelet in a raceme; upper glume and sterile lemma membranous, subequal, tip rounded, sterile palea 0 or rudimentary; fertile lemma and palea hardened, smooth, straw-colored; fertile lemma margins scarious, inrolled, clasping palea. Fruit: white, yellow, or brown, round to elliptical, planoconvex or flattened.
± 300–400 species: tropics, warm temperate worldwide. (Greek: ancient name for a kind of millet) [Allen & Hall 2003 FNANM 25:566–599] Paspalum notatum Flüggé not naturalized in California.
Unabridged references: [Riefner & Columbus J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:743–759]
Unabridged note: Paspalum boscianum collected 1934 as agricultural weed in rice field.

Key to Paspalum

P. dilatatum Poir. DALLIS GRASS
NATURALIZED
Cespitose, base knotty; rhizomes < 1 cm. Stem: 50–175 cm, erect; nodes glabrous. Leaf: sheath glabrous to pubescent, especially lower; ligule 1.5–3.8 mm; blade to 35 cm, 2–16.5 mm wide, flat, generally glabrous, adaxial surface slightly long-hairy near base. Inflorescence: racemes 2–7, 1.5–12 cm, terminal, ascending; axis 0.7–1.4 mm wide, winged, glabrous except margins scabrous. Spikelet: paired, (2.3)3–4 mm, 1.7–2.5 mm wide, appressed to rachis, ovate, straw-yellow (purple), tip tapered; lower glume 0; upper glume and sterile lemma 5–7-veined, long-silky-hairy on margins; fertile floret straw-colored. Fruit: 2–2.3 mm, white to brown.
2n=20,40,50. Disturbed areas; < 1160 m. California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; southern United States; native to South America. May–Nov [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Paspalum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36384, accessed on Oct 23 2014

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click for enlargement Paspalum dilatatum
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© 2006 Steven Thorsted

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Paspalum dilatatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.