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Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome [annual], generally glabrous, often with ± red marks on leaves, flowers when dry. Stem: scape with generally 1 leaf-like bract [scape 0]. Leaf: simple, basal [cauline], alternate [subopposite], generally petioled, often with ± red marks when dry; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: 1-flowered [cyme]. Flower: generally bisexual, ± radial; hypanthium minute, free from ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5 , free, generally white; stamens generally 5, opposite sepals; staminodes generally 5, alternate stamens, lobes generally present, thread-like to oblong, gland-tipped; pistil 1, ovary superior, chamber ± 1, placentas 4 , axile below, parietal above, styles very short, stigmas 4. Fruit: 4-valved capsule. Seed: many, winged, netted.
2 genera, ± 70 species: northern temperate, low arctic, alpine, temperate South America (Lepuropetalon, Parnassia). [Zhang & Simmons 2006 Syst Bot 31:122–137] Formerly included in Saxifragaceae. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Leaf: basal, blade ovate to reniform, entire, base tapered to cordate. Flower: petals white, with yellow, green or gray-brown lines.Key to Parnassia
± 70 species (Mount Parnassus, Greece)
Unabridged references: [R.B. Phillips 1980, Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of California, Berkeley]
Leaf: 4–14 cm; blade 2–5 cm, lance-ovate, base tapered to cordate. Inflorescence: 15–47 cm; bract generally above scape middle (generally at or below middle in Sierra Nevada) [rarely above middle in North America outside California], elliptic. Flower: calyx lobes 3–11 mm, elliptic, entire, spreading in fruit; petals 8–20 mm, 1.5–2 × sepals, round-ovate, entire; staminodes 5–9 mm, lobes (7)9–27, thread-like, tips spheric; anthers 1.5–2.8 mm. Fruit: 8–12 mm.
2n=18,36[27,54]. Wet banks, meadows; < 3600 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada; to Alaska, eastern Canada; Eurasia. [Parnassia californica (A. Gray) Greene] Jul–Oct [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Parnassia fimbriata
Next taxon: Parnassia parviflora
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Parnassia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36283, accessed on Apr 17 2014
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Gerald and Buff Corsi © 2010 California Academy of Sciences
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