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FABACEAE (Leguminosae) LEGUME FAMILY

Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1–few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 ± united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1–many, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth.
± 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. [Lewis et al. (eds) 2005 Legumes of the World. RBG, Kew] Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2–5(8) (vs 7–17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. <Noxious weed>, Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss <Noxious weed> (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cultivated. Ononis alopecuroides L. <Noxious weed>, Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. <Noxious weed> all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania. —Scientific Editors: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Fabaceae

PARKINSONIA PALO VERDE
Tree, shrub, with stipular spines at nodes or thorns in leaf axis (see leaf scars) or main leaf axis a strong spine. Stem: ± zigzag; bark smooth, green. Leaf: alternate or in clusters of 1–6 in spine axils, generally even-2-pinnate, sometimes appearing 1-pinnate, main axis flat, leaflets alternate, falling early or not; 1° leaflets 2–6; 2° leaflets 4–many. Inflorescence: raceme, axillary, generally < 7-flowered. Flower: ± bilateral; sepals ± free, alike, generally reflexed; petals ± equal, generally yellow or cream-white; stamens 10, yellow to orange, free, exserted. Fruit: indehiscent to partly late-dehiscent, generally flat, oblong, ± inflated, narrowed between seeds or not. Seed: 1–several.
11–12 species, 2 named hybrids: America, southern United States to Argentina, Africa; cultivated. (J. Parkinson, London, apothecary, author, 1567–1650) [Haston et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:1359–1371; Hawkins 1996 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ Oxford, UK] Haston et al., Hawkins support treatment of Cercidium and Parkinsonia, both recognized in TJM (1993), as single, monophyletic genus.
Unabridged references: [Carter 1974 Proc Calif Acad Sci 40(2):17–57; Haston et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:1359–1371; Hawkins 1996 Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of Oxford, UK]
Unabridged note: Since S. Watson (1870s), Cercidium and Parkinsonia have variously been treated as 1 or 2 genera; Carter 1974 and McClintock in TJM (1993) recognized both genera but work of Hawkins 1996 (Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Oxford, UK) and Haston et al. 2005 (Amer J Bot 92:1359–1371) support treatment as 1 monophyletic group.

Key to Parkinsonia

P. aculeata L. MEXICAN PALO VERDE
NATURALIZED
Tree < 12 m, with spines at nodes. Leaf: ± sessile;1° leaflets generally 2–4, main axis < 30 cm, conspicuous, persistent ± as ribbon; 2° leaflets 30–60, scattered, 3–5 mm, 1–1.5 mm wide, elliptic, ephemeral. Flower: ± 2 cm wide; sepals reflexed; petals ± round, banner red-spotted at base, all red in age. Fruit: 4–12 cm, ± thickened, leathery.
Uncommon. Disturbed, dry places; < 800 m. San Joaquin Valley, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Sonoran Desert; native to deserts of Arizona, Baja California, South America, widely cultivated in tropics. Generally Apr–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Parkinsonia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=36267, accessed on Jul 27 2014

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click for enlargement Parkinsonia aculeata
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Bioregions in which Parkinsonia aculeata occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.